Regarding out-of-body experiences, many good accounts have been written in English. Many people have had isolated out-of-body experiences, and some of these experiences have been collected and published by researchers. However, there are also books written by individuals who have had many out-of-body experiences; such people are called projectionists, because they are self-aware while projected away from their physical bodies—and they remember their experiences long enough to record them.
In 1920, the personal account of Hugh Calloway—who used the pseudonym Oliver Fox—was published in a British journal. About two decades later he wrote the book Astral Projection, which recounted his experiences more fully. Fox was a lucid dreamer.
Fox had his first lucid dream at the age of 16, in 1902. He dreamed he was standing outside his home. In the dream, the nearby ocean was visible, along with trees and nearby buildings; and Fox walked toward his home, and looked down at the stone-covered walkway. Although similar, the walkway in the dream was not identical in appearance to the real-life walkway that it imitated. During the dream, Fox noticed this difference and wondered about it. The explanation that he was dreaming occurred to him, and at that point he became self-aware. His dream ended shortly afterward.
After that first lucid dream, lucid dreaming became a frequent occurrence for Fox. He would be asleep and dreaming, and at some point he would become conscious within the dream. Fox noted two interesting things about his lucid dreams: he could move about within the dream, such as by gliding across an apparent surface; and the substance that formed the objects in the dream could be molded by thought.
Fox’s lucid dreams were typically short, and he did his best to prolong them. But he would feel a pain in his dream-head, and this pain signaled the need to return to his body. As this initially weak pain grew, he then experienced a dual perception consisting of his dream sensations and his body’s sensations. A sort of tug-of-war resulted, with the body winning.
Unlike Fox, most lucid dreamers never report having a choice about returning to their body, because at some point the lucid dream just ends without any warning, and the dreamer awakes. Presumably in Fox’s case, the perceptions he felt of his physical body were communicated (using the learned-program send() statement) to his mind (his soliton’s owned bions) by the same brain bions in his brain that communicate sensory signals to his mind when he is awake in his body. Similarly, communications from the mind to brain bions can ultimately affect the body, as demonstrated by sleep-lab experiments in which the physical body can show various movements and other responses that correlate with events in the lucid dream.
Fox had wondered what would happen if he resisted the warning-pain signal and delayed the return to his body. He decided to experiment. About a year after his first lucid dream, he became self-aware in another of his walk-around-the-town dreams. He felt the warning pain and ignored it. The dual perception occurred, and he successfully willed to retain the dream perception. Next, the growing pain in his dream-head peaked and then disappeared. At that point Fox was free to continue his lucid dream.
As Fox’s lucid dream continued, he soon wanted to awake, but nothing happened; his lucid dream continued. Fox then became fearful, and tried to concentrate on returning to his body. Suddenly, he was back in his body, but he found himself paralyzed. His body senses were working, but he was unable to make any movements. Fortunately, this condition did not last long, and he was soon able to move again. However, immediately afterward he was queasy, and he felt sick for three days. This experience deterred him for a while, but a few weeks later he again ignored the warning-pain during a lucid dream, and the same pattern resulted. He says the sickness was less this time, and the memory of the dream was lost. After this second experience, Fox no longer fought against the signal to return.
Fox remarks that years later he learned that if he had only relaxed and fallen asleep when he was paralyzed in his body, then the subsequent sickness would not have occurred.
During his teens and twenties, Fox continued to have lucid dreams, and he noticed a pattern. Often, his lucid dreams never reached the warning-pain stage, because he would do something that would cut the dream short and cause him to awake. Fox gives some examples of what he means: After ordering a meal in a restaurant and then eating it, trying to taste the food he was eating caused him to awake. While watching a play in a theater, a growing interest in the play would cause him to awake. If Fox encountered an attractive woman, he could converse with her, but when he thought of an embrace or such, he would awake. In general, to prolong a lucid dream, “I may look, but I must not get too interested—let alone touch!”
The lucid dreamer is just his awareness/mind, separated from his physical body and its cell-controlling bions. In the lucid-dream environment, he can move to different locations, interact with others who are in the same condition as himself (being just an awareness/mind), and he can see appearances—whether of individuals or objects—constructed of d-common atoms. Regarding the specific things that Fox consciously wanted to do while in his lucid dream, that required his physical body with its cell-controlling bions to do, Fox’s mind, responding to what Fox consciously wanted, returned him to his physical body. Although I can no longer remember any specific examples from my own approximately 400 lucid dreams (too many years have passed—I am writing this sentence in 2016), I had lucid dreams end for the same reason as Fox, consciously trying to do something during a lucid dream that was not doable for me without my physical body and its cell-controlling bions.
Seeing and hearing are the two senses of the lucid dreamer that work just as well in the lucid dream as they do in the physical body. The typical lucid dreamer sees clearly in color, and can hear and talk by means of telepathic communication. In contrast to seeing and hearing, the other senses are noticeably absent. For the lucid dreamer, the senses of taste, touch, and smell, are missing. Any conscious attempt, either explicit or implicit, to use any of these three missing senses during a lucid dream causes a return to one’s physical body (for example, wanting sex with a woman one is currently with in a lucid dream is an implicit wanting to touch; although I no longer remember any details, I know this happened to me a number of times).
Instead of being an idle spectator watching the world go by, the lucid dreamer is frequently in motion. He may be moving slowly, or moving more quickly. However, the most spectacular motion for the lucid dreamer is a sudden acceleration to a great speed. At first, the lucid dreamer may be at a relative standstill, or moving, when this sudden acceleration begins. As the acceleration quickly builds, the sight goes black, and there may be a loss of consciousness. The next thing the lucid dreamer is aware of, is a change in the location of the lucid dream. Apparently, the sudden acceleration happens when a large distance has to be traveled.
The lucid-dream literature has many lucid-dream stories in which transcontinental and transoceanic distances are quickly traveled by the lucid dreamer. Thus, there is reason to believe that the awareness/mind (the soliton and its owned bions)—when it is by itself and not, in effect, tied down with its physical body or a projected bion-body—can quickly accelerate to a speed of roughly several hundred kilometers per second.
Although the motion of the lucid dreamer is an impressive clue that there is an external dream world, additional evidence comes from encounters with persons known to the lucid dreamer. These lucid-dream encounters are sometimes independently confirmed when the awakened dreamer later talks with the encountered persons. For example, Fox tells the following story: He was discussing dreams with two friends. The three of them then agreed to meet together that night in their dreams. Fox remembered meeting only one friend in a dream that night. The next day the three friends compared experiences. The friend whom Fox met in the dream also recalled meeting Fox. Both Fox and this friend agreed they never saw the third friend, who claimed to have no memory of his dreams that night.
The experience that most convinced Fox that there is an external dream world, involved a girlfriend of his, when he was 19, in the summer of 1905. Fox had talked about his lucid-dream experiences with her, but her attitude was that such things were wicked. Fox tried to overcome her objections by claiming that she was ignorant and he could teach her. However, her reaction was that she already knew about such things, and could appear in his room at night if she wanted to. He doubted her claim, and she became determined to prove it. That night, Fox had what he calls a False Awakening—where he becomes self-aware, very close to his physical body, having both his lucid-dream vision and lucid-dream hearing. While he was in this condition, his girlfriend made a sudden, dazzling appearance in his bedroom. She appeared fully formed, wearing a nightdress. She said nothing, but looked about the room. After a while, Fox tried to speak to her, but she disappeared, and Fox awoke.
The following day, Fox met with his girlfriend to compare experiences. She greeted him enthusiastically with the news of her success. Without having been in his room before, she successfully described both its appearance and content. The description was sufficiently detailed to convince Fox of the reality of her visit. Fox remarks that his girlfriend said his eyes were open during the visit.
In describing his projections, Fox often shows an apparent confusion between dream-world objects and physical objects. For example, he seems to think his girlfriend saw his physical bedroom, and that is why he makes the remark about her saying that she saw his eyes open during the visit. He is quite sure that his physical eyes were closed. He finally concludes that she probably saw the open eyes of his dream appearance.
It seems to be a rule that the things seen during a lucid dream are objects composed of d-common atoms. Probably when Fox’s girlfriend visited him that night, she was having a lucid dream and both of them were actually in a d-common replica of his physical room, which may have actually been much smaller in size than his physical room (see the discussion about the size of things seen during a lucid dream, in subsection 5.1.2).
In a lucid dream, d-common objects often duplicate the shape and coloring of physical objects. For example, the appearances of other people who are known to oneself from one’s daily life, seen during a lucid dream, are typically imitations of their physical appearances. Assuming Fox’s girlfriend was having a lucid dream when she made her appearance that night, then the only part of her that was in that room was her awareness/mind (her soliton and its owned bions).
A valid question is what causes d-common atoms to assume shapes and colorings that imitate physical objects? Probably what shaped, colored, and clothed Fox’s girlfriend during her visit, was her mind, which constructed out of d-common atoms the appearance that Fox saw. The observed replica room was perhaps part of a larger replica house or building. Probably these replicas are constructed by the minds of the people who live there. The replica of Fox’s room was probably constructed by Fox himself, unconsciously.
Fox mentions the existence in the lucid-dream world of an entire city—an imitation London which he visited and explored. Besides imitation buildings that looked familiar, there were also buildings and monuments that Fox knew had no equivalent in the real city of London. Fox says that it was his experience that his repeated lucid-dream trips to the same town or city showed the same buildings and monuments—including those that had no counterpart in the real town or city.
Once made, a d-common object seems to remain in the same location, and retain its form—until a mind moves, changes, or destroys it. Although the actual manipulation of d-common atoms is normally done unconsciously, sometimes a lucid dreamer can consciously will a change in some nearby d-common object and see the change happen.
Despite an often similar appearance, there is no linkage between d-common objects and p-common objects. For example, an experiment that is often reported by lucid dreamers is that they successfully move some d-common object that they think corresponds to a familiar physical object; but once they are awake and check that physical object, they always find it unmoved.
Fox remarks how the memories of his lucid-dream projections were fleeting. To counter this, he would often write down an account of his projection as soon as he was awake. In his book, Fox wonders why such memories are not more permanent. Of course, for most people the memory of ordinary dreams is very fleeting, too. Occasionally a dream or lucid dream makes an impression on long-term memory, but that is the exception not the rule. It seems that the learned programs that manage the mind’s memory, when deciding long-term retention, assign a comparatively low priority to both dreams and lucid dreams.
 Fox, Oliver. Astral Projection. Citadel Press, Secaucus, 1980.
 LaBerge, Stephen. Lucid Dreaming. Ballantine Books, New York, 1987. pp. 82–95.
 Fox, op. cit., p. 44.
 Regarding the perceived shape and coloring of d-common objects, these conscious perceptions are perceptions of mental constructions that were made by the relevant learned programs concerned with vision; these learned programs process the sensory data for the d-common objects being seen. This is the same situation as with ordinary waking sight and p-common objects. In both cases, one consciously sees only a mental construction of what is there.
Given that d-common particles do not interact with p-common particles, this means that the sensory data used to construct the perceptions of d-common objects is different than the sensory data used to construct the perceptions of p-common objects. More specifically, photons (composing visible light) are p-common particles, and are not involved in the perception of d-common objects. Instead, the learned-program statement get_relative_locations_of_d_common_atoms() is, in effect, the sensory source for seeing d-common objects.
Sylvan Muldoon was born in the USA in 1903, and spent his life in the Midwest. In November 1927, he sent a letter to Hereward Carrington, a well-known writer on paranormal subjects. Muldoon had read one of Carrington’s books, and he wanted to let Carrington know that he, Muldoon, knew a lot more about projection than did the sources Carrington used in his book. Carrington was so impressed by Muldoon’s letter that he wrote him back and invited him to write a book which he, Carrington, would edit and write an introduction for. The result was The Projection of the Astral Body, published in London in 1929.
Overall, lucid dreams are more common than bion-body projections. But Muldoon had only bion-body projections. And his projected bion-body was much more substantial (having many more cell-controlling bions) than does the typical bion-body projectionist, who has lucid dreams more than bion-body projections. In its main elements, Muldoon’s account is consistent with the many other accounts in the literature of bion-body projections. The main elements of agreement are: a complete and unchanging bion-body that comes out of the physical body and then later reenters it; an inability to contact or otherwise affect physical objects; the relatively short duration of the projection experience, sometimes punctuated by brief returns to the physical body. Where Muldoon’s account differs from the standard account, each of the differences is attributable to either the greater density of his projected bion-body, or to the presumed details of whatever learned programs regulated his projections.
Muldoon was only 12 years old when he had his first projection experience. His mother had taken him to a camp of gathered spiritualists in Iowa, because she was interested in spiritualism. Muldoon slept in a nearby house that night, with other persons from the camp. He had been asleep for several hours when he awoke slowly. At first he did not know where he was, and everything was dark. Eventually he realized he was lying down on his bed—but he could not move. Muldoon soon felt his whole body vibrating, and he felt a pulsing pressure in the back of his head. Also, he had the sensation of floating.
Muldoon soon regained his sight and hearing. He then realized that he was floating about a meter above the bed. This was his bion-body floating, although he did not yet realize it. Muldoon still could not move. He continued to float upward. When his bion-body was about two meters above the bed, his bion-body was moved upright and placed onto the floor standing. Muldoon estimates he was frozen in this standing position for about two minutes, after which the bion-body became relaxed and Muldoon could consciously control it.
The first thing Muldoon did was turn around and look at the bed. He saw his physical body lying on it. He also saw what he calls a cable, extending out from between the eyes of his physical body on the bed. The cable ran to the back of his bion-body head, which is where he continued to feel some pressure. Muldoon was about two meters from his physical body. His bion-body, being very light, was not firmly held down by gravity, and it tended to sway back and forth despite his efforts to stabilize it.
Not surprisingly, Muldoon was both bewildered and upset. He thought he had died—so he resolved to let the other people in the house know what had happened to him. He walked to the door of the room, intending to open it, but he walked right thru it. Muldoon then went from one room to another and tried to wake the people in those rooms, but was unable to do so. His hands passed thru the physical bodies he tried to grab and shake. Muldoon remarks that despite this inability to make contact with physical objects, he could still see and hear them clearly. Muldoon says that at one point during his movements in the house he both saw and heard a car passing by the house. Muldoon also says that he heard a clock strike two. Upon looking at the hands of the clock he verified that it was two o’clock.
Muldoon gave up trying to wake the other people in the house. He then wandered around in the house for about fifteen minutes. At the end of that time he noticed that the cable in the back of his head was resisting his movements. The resistance increased, and Muldoon soon found himself being pulled backward toward his physical body, which was still lying on its bed. He lost conscious control of his bion-body, which was automatically repositioned, as before, above his physical body. The bion-body then lowered down, began vibrating again, and reentered the physical body. Upon reentry, Muldoon felt a sharp pain. The projection was over. Muldoon concludes his story by saying, “I was physically alive again, filled with awe, as amazed as fearful, and I had been conscious throughout the entire occurrence.”
Over the years that followed, Muldoon says that he had several more projections similar to the first one, in which he was conscious from the very beginning of the projection until its very end. In addition, Muldoon says he had several hundred other projections, where he was conscious for only part of the time during the projection. Typically, he would become conscious after the bion-body had moved into a standing position a short distance from his physical body. As far as he could tell, the order of events established by his first projection experience was always maintained. His situation, in terms of his sight, hearing, bion-body, and cable connection, was the same from one projection to the next.
The cable that, in its appearance, connects the projected bion-body with the physical body is more commonly called a cord, and has been noticed by some, but not all, bion-body projectionists (in my own bion-body projections, I never saw a cord of any kind). If, for at least some bion-body projectionists, there is a cord, then what is this cord? The cord, if it is there, is, like the rest of the projected bion-body, composed of cell-controlling bions that were temporarily withdrawn from cells in the projectionist’s physical body.
The cord that Muldoon noticed during his first projection, was a common feature of his later projections. He often studied this cord when he was projected. For Muldoon, out to a somewhat variable distance of a few meters from his physical body, his cord remained thick. As long as the cord appeared thick, his bion-body was strongly influenced by his physical body. Within this range, Muldoon felt happenings to his physical body reproduced in his bion-body. For example, once a pet dog jumped on the bed and snuggled against Muldoon’s physical body while he was projected within range. He felt this dog as though it were pressing against his bion-body. Besides feeling his physical body’s sensations, Muldoon could also control its breathing when within range. As Muldoon moved further away from his physical body, the cord became very thin, like a thread. Muldoon claims that the cord kept its threadlike thinness out to whatever distance he moved to—even to a distance of many kilometers.
During a bion-body projection, it often happens that at regular intervals the bion-body briefly returns to the physical body. During each such brief return, a kind of pumping sensation is sometimes felt. First, the bion-body quickly reenters the physical body. Then, during the brief period of a few seconds when the bion-body is with the physical body, the projectionist may feel the whole bion-body pumping. Muldoon and other projectionists have interpreted these brief returns as a recharging, or reenergizing, of the projected body. This is the fuel-is-low and batteries-are-run-down kind of explanation. However, a more correct and detailed explanation is given in subsection 5.2.3, which in summary explains these brief returns to the physical body as necessary to prolong the total time of the bion-body projection, by completely replacing those bions in the projected bion-body that are returning to their cells or will soon be returning to their cells, with other bions from the physical body that are currently available to join the bion-body projection.
The consistent shape of the bion-body suggests its origin. The bion-body is always a match of the physical body in terms of its general outline (the reason for this is also given in subsection 5.2.3). No projectionist ever reports an incomplete bion-body, or—aside from ordinary movement such as the bending of limbs—a bion-body that alters or transforms its shape. This is different from what is possible during a lucid dream. The apparent body of a lucid-dream projectionist is constructed on the spot out of d-common atoms, which have no connection to the projectionist’s physical body. Thus, lucid-dream projectionists sometimes report having no body—or an incomplete body, or a nonhuman body. Also, they sometimes report seeing someone else undergo a transformation of their apparent human form. However, such variability is never reported for the bion-body.
The typical bion-body projectionist finds himself in a flimsy bion-body. These projectionists make no connection between physical health and bion-body projections—unless to claim that good health promotes projections. Muldoon, of course, was not the typical bion-body projectionist. When compared to other projectionists, his bion-body was consistently dense; and his projections were sometimes long lasting, such as the approximately twenty-minute duration of his first projection. It is interesting that Muldoon takes a very decisive position on the relationship between physical health and projection ability. He claims that sickness promotes projection, and health has the opposite effect. His basis for this claim was his own experience: Muldoon was often sick. According to Carrington, Muldoon wrote his book from his sickbed.
Muldoon’s identification of sickness with projection ability may be accurate in Muldoon’s case. Muldoon’s opinion was that sickness comes first, and then the projections follow. However, Muldoon’s projections kept many of his physical body’s cell-controlling bions away from their cells, and sometimes for comparatively long periods of time. Therefore, it seems more reasonable to suppose that the projections came first—followed by the sickness.
Regarding the vibration of the bion-body, the bion-body is known to vibrate at times. The typical literature of the 20th century has an erroneous explanation for this vibration of the bion-body, based on the premise that there are different invisible planes of existence. The phrase planes of existence is a figure of speech used in the literature to suggest separateness. According to this erroneous explanation, these planes operate at different frequencies, and the vibration rate of the bion-body can match these different frequencies. Thus, according to this explanation, the vibration rate of the bion-body determines which of these invisible planes becomes visible and accessible to the projectionist.
There are three reasons why this erroneous explanation came about. First, bion-body projectionists report that when they feel the vibrations increasing in frequency, then separation of the bion-body from the physical body will happen. Conversely, when they feel the vibrations decreasing in frequency, then reassociation of the bion-body with the physical body is likely. Thus, it was argued that there is a correlation between a low vibration frequency and the physical plane of existence. Second, projectionists often report experiences that are very different from each other. It was argued that this suggests different planes of existence. For example, lucid dreams are happening on one plane, and bion-body projections are happening on a different plane. Third, vibrations are easily described with mathematics. Thus, a vibrational model of reality appealed to those who were influenced by the mathematics-only reality model.
The correlation of decreasing frequency with physical reassociation, and increasing frequency with physical disassociation, suggests that when the bion-body is separated from the physical body, and the projectionist does not feel any vibration, that the bion-body is nevertheless vibrating, but at a frequency too high to be felt or otherwise noticed. Probably this vibration of the bion-body is a consequence of the process that keeps the bion-body together when it is away from the physical body. However, regardless of the specific cause, the vibrations have nothing to do with tuning in alternate realities—as though the bion-body were a radio-tuner or television-tuner switching stations and channels, instead of being what it really is: a population of cooperating intelligent particles.
After the onset of the vibrations, Muldoon felt himself floating. As he was floating upward, his senses of hearing and sight became active. It is unusual that Muldoon could see and hear our physical world. Most bion-body projectionists do not have the dense bion-body that Muldoon had, and cannot see or hear our physical world when in their projected bion-body; but they can see their own projected bion-body—typically as a darkness-enveloped, grainy, gray-looking, wispy body—when they look at it. To try to understand what Muldoon’s senses were like, here are a few quotes:
When the sense of hearing first begins to manifest, the sounds seem far away. When the eyes first begin to see, everything seems blurred and whitish. Just as the sounds become more distinct, so does the sense of sight become clearer and clearer.
As is often the case, everything at first seemed blurred about me, as though the room were filled with steam, or white clouds, half transparent; as though one were looking through an imperfect windowpane, seeing blurry objects through it. This condition is but temporary, however—lasting, as a rule, about a minute in practically all conscious projections.
Once you are exteriorized, and your sense of sight working, the room, which was dark to your physical eyes, is no longer dark—for you are using your astral eyes, and there is a ‘foggish’ light everywhere, such as you see in your dreams, a diffused light we might call it, a light which seems none too bright, and yet is not too dim, apparently sifting right through the objects of the material world.
The primary difference between Muldoon and most other bion-body projectionists, was the greater density of Muldoon’s projected bion-body, and this greater density was enough to trigger activation of his mind’s third-eye and third-ear (see step 5 in subsection 5.2.3), allowing Muldoon to see and hear our physical world during his bion-body projections. For those of us who have this third-eye and third-ear, the third-eye and third-ear exist as learned programs in one’s mind. I think it’s very likely that all humans have this third-eye and third-ear, and humanity inherited these learned programs for the third-eye and third-ear from the Caretakers (section 7.6) in the distant past when humanity began. But most of us humans will not consciously experience the third-eye and third-ear until we are in the afterlife (section 6.3).
The third-eye, when active, repeatedly calls the learned-program statement get_photon_vectors(), which detects photons and constructs a visual image from those photons. The third-ear, when active, repeatedly calls the learned-program statement get_relative_locations_of_physical_atoms() to measure sound waves in air.
Assuming we each have the third-eye and third-ear in our human minds, one might wonder why they never activate when we are in our physical bodies. And especially in the case of people who are blind and/or deaf, why does this hidden capability not activate so that they can see and hear? The simple answer is that one’s awareness/mind is located inside one’s skull when one is in one’s physical body, and this means that one’s awareness/mind is surrounded by physical matter that blocks all the light (photons) from outside one’s physical head, and without that light one’s third-eye cannot see our physical world. And likewise for one’s third-ear, which needs to be surrounded by air, to hear the sounds in that air.
In general, during an out-of-body experience, more than one vision system may be operating simultaneously (and this is also true during the afterlife). For example, during my one dense bion-body projection (described in subsection 10.1.1), I saw simultaneously both a part of my dense bion-body and a part of my physical room (the parts that were within my field of view; presumably, whenever two vision systems are, in effect, operating simultaneously, they each use the same direction-of-view vector so that they each have the same field of view). Both were seen simultaneously from the vantage point of my awareness/mind located in my bion-body head. Thus, my vision of bions was operating at the same time that my third-eye was operating. In terms of computation cost, note that combining, aka compositing, two images together into a single image—in this case, compositing the current image from my vision of bions with the current image from my third-eye—is a low-cost operation directly proportional to the number of pixels in the composite image assuming that the two images to be composited together are the same size. Assuming that both vision systems in one’s mind, when running, are generating many images per second, so as to give continuous, smooth vision of movement, there will be many composite images generated per second that one’s mind will send to one’s awareness so that one consciously sees in the direction one is currently looking at.
Also note that in my one dense bion-body projection, it was already early morning after sunrise, and sunlight was streaming into my room through the closed window blinds. My third-eye vision was working good from the outset, and there was none of the initially “blurred and whitish” vision that Muldoon describes above for himself. However, this difference between us may simply be because of the difference in light levels: Muldoon describes his situation in a dark nighttime room, and my own situation was in an early-morning sunlit room.
During Muldoon’s first projection, he tried to make contact with the other people in the house. He saw their physical bodies lying in bed, but his bion-body hands passed right thru them. The reason he wasn’t able to make contact with physical matter is the same reason that none of us humans can make contact with physical matter during a bion-body projection: The projected bion-body is composed of cell-controlling bions that were withdrawn from the cells of one’s physical body. The learned programs for cell-controlling bions are specialized to only manipulate physical matter within their own cells and the very close environment around their cells. Thus, cell-controlling bions that are currently separated from their cells, such as during a bion-body projection, cannot affect physical matter because their learned programs have no programming to do so when cell-controlling bions are away from their cells.
Muldoon remarks how frustrated he was that he could never make contact with physical objects. In the many projections he had, his bion-body never made contact with a physical object while he was conscious. However, Muldoon believed that there were a few instances when his bion-body made contact with a physical object while he was unconscious. For example:
On the night of February 26, 1928, Muldoon had a serious stomach sickness, which caused him great pain. At near midnight he was overcome with pain and called out to his mother for help. She was asleep in an upstairs bedroom and did not hear him. Muldoon struggled out of bed, still calling, and he fainted from the pain and effort. He regained consciousness, only to struggle and faint again. The next time he regained consciousness, he was projected in his bion-body. His bion-body was moving without conscious control up the stairs, thru a wall, and into the room where his mother and small brother were sleeping. Muldoon saw both of them sound asleep on the bed. Then Muldoon lost consciousness for a brief period. Upon regaining consciousness, Muldoon saw his mother and small brother excitedly talking about being rolled out of bed by an uplifted mattress. After witnessing this scene, Muldoon’s bion-body was drawn back and reentered his physical body. Back in his physical body, Muldoon called again to his mother. This time she heard him and came downstairs. Ignoring that he was lying on the floor, she excitedly told him how spirits had lifted the mattress several times. And she was, of course, frightened by it.
Muldoon assumed that his bion-body moved that mattress while he was unconscious. However, being conscious or unconscious does not change any of the learned programs in the cell-controlling bions that composed his bion-body, and I do not believe that Muldoon’s bion-body moved that mattress. Instead, assuming that the event actually happened, other explanations are possible, including help from a Caretaker (section 7.6; the Caretaker bion-body has no cell-controlling bions in it, and can move physical objects such as that mattress). With this explanation, Muldoon going unconscious was the price he had to pay to receive that help, because, apparently, the Caretakers want to keep their occasional involvement in human affairs secret.
When projected in a bion-body, we humans cannot make contact with physical matter, but we can make contact with other projected bion bodies. Most bion-body projectionists eventually have encounters with other bion bodies. Struggles and fights are often reported. These encounters can be both frightening and painful. Muldoon gives one example of this kind of encounter:
In 1923, Muldoon listened to a conversation between his mother and another woman who lived in town. This other woman described what an awful man her husband, who had just died, had been. Because of the stories the woman told, Muldoon became angered against that man. That night Muldoon had a projection. Upon turning to look at his physical body, Muldoon was shocked to see the bion-body of the dead man talked about earlier in the day. Muldoon describes this man as having a savage look and being determined for revenge—and he quickly attacked the projected Muldoon. There was a fight and Muldoon was getting the worst of it—as well as being cursed at. However, the fight soon ended when Muldoon was drawn back into his physical body. Once he reentered his physical body, Muldoon no longer felt or heard the attack of his enemy. Muldoon remarks how his attacker clung to him and continued his attack while Muldoon was being slowly drawn back toward his physical body. However, the attacker was unable to prevent Muldoon’s reentry.
This chapter has considered in detail both lucid-dream projections and bion-body projections. A third kind of projection is covered in chapter 6.
 Muldoon, Sylvan, and Hereward Carrington. The Projection of the Astral Body. Samuel Weiser, New York, 1980.
 Ibid., p. 53.
 Ibid., p. 233.
 Ibid., p. 255.
 Ibid., p. 204.
 Assume there is a learned-program statement get_photon_vectors(), and it has at least the following two parameters:
A 3D vector v_look_in_this_direction that points in the direction to look at.
A parameter that specifies the wanted frequency range for the photons to be seen.
The design of the get_photon_vectors() routine along with its associated code, is somewhat similar to the design of the push_against_physical_matter() routine and its associated code, but instead of defining a cylinder in 3D space which push_against_physical_matter() does, a circular truncated cone is defined in get_photon_vectors(). For this circular truncated cone, the center-point of its smaller endcap is the current location in 3D space of this_bion which is calling get_photon_vectors()—in the code for get_photon_vectors(), this_CE’s_XYZ is this center-point location.
Define the vector CTC_vector as the vector that runs from the center-point of the smaller endcap to the center-point of the larger endcap, and this vector has the same orientation—points in the same direction as, and is parallel to—vector v_look_in_this_direction. Regarding what the length of CTC_vector should be, and also the diameter of the smaller endcap and the diameter of the larger endcap, one must first consider how this circular truncated cone will be used:
After the circular truncated cone is fully defined in get_photon_vectors(), then get_photon_vectors() sends out a special_handling_non_locate request message that has a short range: set the message’s send_distance to (the length of CTC_vector + the diameter of the larger endcap) so that the message will reach all computing elements within the volume of space defined by the circular truncated cone. The sent message-text includes the defined circular truncated cone and also the get_photon_vectors() parameter that specifies the wanted frequency range for the photons to be seen.
The special handling at each computing element that receives the sent message is as follows:
if the computing element currently holds a photon whose frequency is within the wanted frequency range
and the vector that gives the current direction of travel for that photon (this vector would be in the current state information for that photon) shows that that photon’s travel, assuming it continues uninterrupted in a straight line, will intersect the small endcap of the circular truncated cone (in effect, this small endcap is the pinhole opening of a pinhole camera)
and the XYZ coordinate of this computing element that currently holds this photon is inside the circular truncated cone
Send a reply message back to the bion that sent the request message being replied to (set the send_distance of this reply message to the same send_distance value in the request message being replied to). The reply message-text will include the photon’s current location in 3D space, its frequency, and the intersection point on the small endcap given that photon’s current direction of travel.
Associated with the get_photon_vectors() routine, there is another routine that processes the reply messages, if any, that result from calling get_photon_vectors(). Assume that get_photon_vectors() after defining the circular truncated cone, saves that definition into global variables that are visible to this routine that processes the reply messages, because info about the small endcap which is, in effect, the pinhole opening of a pinhole camera, is needed to process the reply messages. Then, for each received reply message, compute where that photon will intersect with the viewing plane that lies behind and is parallel to the small endcap (by “viewing plane” is meant an imaginary plane where, in a physical pinhole camera, the sheet of recording film would lie flat against that plane). The end result is that for each reply message there will be a computed point on that imaginary viewing plane where that photon will hit assuming its straight-line travel. Then, after all the reply messages have been received in the time allowed for their reception—this allowed time would be about 2 × the estimated time for the request message sent by get_photon_vectors() to travel its send_distance distance—the output of this routine that processed all the reply messages would be, in effect, an image, and at each pixel of that image an average frequency value and also a count of all the photons that intersected that pixel on the viewing plane.
Referring back to the size of the circular truncated cone defined in get_photon_vectors(), that would depend at least in part on the wanted frequency range for the photons to be seen. Assuming that the wanted frequency range is the ordinary light that we humans can see, then an estimate for an optimal pinhole size is given as 0.17 millimeter in diameter assuming that the viewing plane is one inch behind the pinhole (see the Selection of pinhole size section in the Wikipedia article Pinhole camera at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinhole_camera). Regarding the other two lengths of the circular truncated cone, being the length of the CTC_vector and the diameter of the larger endcap, I assume that, in general, the larger the volume of the circular truncated cone, the greater the light gathering ability of the pinhole camera. Offsetting this advantage of more light gathering with a larger volume, is the disadvantage of potentially more reply messages and more processing, and also a larger volume means more space in which intervening physical matter may be that will interfere with the straight-line path of those photons in that larger volume that would otherwise pass thru the pinhole. For the length of the CTC_vector and the diameter of the larger endcap, perhaps one or both are optional parameters of the get_photon_vectors() statement. In this case, for the default values when these optional parameters are not given, and assuming that the wanted frequency range of photons is the ordinary light that we humans can see, then my rough guess for the length of CTC_vector is about one centimeter, and the diameter of the larger endcap is about twice that (2 centimeters).
In the case of Sylvan Muldoon and his seeing physical objects while projected in his bion-body, presumably repeated calls of get_photon_vectors() by at least one of his mind bions—“his mind bions” are his soliton’s owned bions; at least two of his mind bions if his third-eye had stereoscopic vision—provide the sequence of raw images that are then further processed by his mind, such as identifying any objects in those images, and the finished images and associated data are then sent to Muldoon’s soliton so that he can consciously see, and know what he is seeing. For continuous vision there would be successive calls of get_photon_vectors(), each producing a single image. Given the size of the circular truncated cone and the resulting value for send_distance, to further increase light gathering close to its limit, assuming successive calls of get_photon_vectors() by a bion, the target time interval between any call of get_photon_vectors() by that bion and the next call of get_photon_vectors() by that bion should be the time for a photon traveling at the speed of light to travel send_distance distance (the idea is to allow time for the photons that were in the circular truncated cone defined by the previous call of get_photon_vectors(), to completely leave that circular truncated cone and be replaced with new photons if any, by the time the next call of get_photon_vectors() is made). Given this target time interval, the next call of get_photon_vectors() by that bion should be made as soon as both of the following are true: 1) the processing by that bion of the received replies (if any) that resulted from its previous call of get_photon_vectors(), has completed; and 2) the target time interval computed for that previous call of get_photon_vectors() has elapsed since that previous call of get_photon_vectors() was made.
Assuming the previous paragraph, this maximizing of light gathering will result in a bion making very many calls of get_photon_vectors() in a very short time. The result will be a large number of images generated in a very short time, because for each call of get_photon_vectors(), one image is generated from the replies to that call’s sent request message. In this case, many successive images composited into a single image is probably happening very early in the process: Assume that get_photon_vectors() has an optional parameter that allows setting, in effect, an exposure time. For example, calling get_photon_vectors() with an exposure time of 1/60th of a second would result in, in effect, as many calls of get_photon_vectors() without that optional parameter, as could be made in 1/60th of a second given the rule in the previous paragraph as to how long to wait until making the next call of get_photon_vectors(), and all the replies that result during that 1/60th of a second time interval are composited into a single image that is returned by that top-level call of get_photon_vectors() that specified that 1/60th of a second exposure time.
Note that calling get_photon_vectors() has no effect on the physical world: Unlike a physical pinhole camera which blocks and absorbs light, calling get_photon_vectors() has no effect on any photons, neither blocking/absorbing them nor altering their speed, trajectory, or frequency.
 In our physical bodies, the sounds we hear with our ears originated as sound waves (rapid changes in air pressure that vibrate our ear drums). Measuring within a small volume of air, a sound wave passing thru that volume briefly changes the total number of air atoms in that volume (this is the pressure change). The learned-program statement get_relative_locations_of_physical_atoms() (subsection 3.8.8) can be used to detect sound waves in air, by counting, many thousands of times per second, the number of air atoms in a small volume surrounding the bion that is calling get_relative_locations_of_physical_atoms(). Regarding the parameters for calling get_relative_locations_of_physical_atoms(): Specifying the maximum allowed value for use_this_send_distance which is MAX_SEND_DISTANCE_ALLOWED_FOR_LOCATING_ATOMS (estimated at less than one-tenth of a millimeter), and specifying either the nitrogen atom or the oxygen atom as the atom to get replies from and thereby count (nitrogen and oxygen are the two major components of our atmosphere), would probably work good for measuring sound waves in our air. Also, the get_details_for_this_many_nearest_recipients parameter would be set to zero, because we only want a count of those atoms in that spherical volume of space (this count will be the returned ret_total_replies value).
The learned program in one’s mind that is calling get_relative_locations_of_physical_atoms() many thousands of times per second with the purpose of sensing sound waves would send this sensory data after some initial processing to other learned programs in one’s mind for further processing, such as identifying the sounds, if any, being heard, and constructing the messages that would be sent to one’s soliton so that one can consciously hear, and know what one is hearing.
This chapter considers awareness and the intelligent particle associated with awareness. There is also a discussion of the afterlife. The chapter sections are:
The soliton is an intelligent particle that has an associated awareness. Each person has a single soliton. This soliton is the location of the separate, solitary awareness that each person experiences.
The soliton can only directly interact—by sending and receiving messages—with its owned bions, and a soliton’s owned bions were created when that soliton was created, and every soliton has the same number of owned bions. A soliton is, in effect, invisible to all particles in existence with the sole exception of its owned bions, and the computing-element program always keeps a soliton and its owned bions together, limiting how far away these intelligent particles can be from each other. A soliton’s owned bions collectively form that soliton’s mind.
The computing-element program, in effect, makes a soliton the ruler over its owned bions. These owned bions that collectively form the soliton’s mind are like a government that reports to, and receives orders from, its soliton ruler. The role of the soliton ruler is to be the final decision maker—to set goals for the government, and provide feedback and guidance to the government.
For us humans, the intellectual work of one’s human mind is done by the owned bions of one’s soliton (awareness). For example, our memories are stored in our minds (more specifically, stored in the memory of those owned bions whose learned programs have specialized them for memory storage and retrieval) and not anywhere in our awareness (more specifically, not anywhere in our soliton’s memory). Also, these owned bions provide all processing of the raw sensory data sent by brain bions to one’s mind, including, for example, all recognition work of what is being seen and/or heard and/or tasted and/or touched and/or smelled. In addition, these owned bions provide all language operations such as parsing sentences and constructing sentences, and they provide all voluntary motor control, sending messages to those brain bions that can trigger muscle movements. Moreover, they provide all problem-solving and creative services—and so on. For us humans, the total amount of intellectual product generated by one’s unconscious mind is much greater than the total amount of intellectual product that is brought to the attention of one’s awareness. (See section 9.6 for a detailed discussion of the soliton’s limited capacity for receiving input from the human mind.)
As humans, we live in a physical world that is filled with a great variety of non-human animals. For those animals that can purposefully move about, one can assume that behind that purposeful movement is some number of bions that collectively form that animal’s mind. But, for a given specific kind of animal, such as, for example, an ameba or an insect, does its mind have a soliton (an awareness)?
In the case of an ameba (already considered in section 2.2), what is it about an ameba that needs a complex mind with a soliton ruler to make the “tough” decisions about which direction it should move. Obviously, in the case of an ameba, there are no “tough” decisions to make about which direction that ameba should move, and, in the case of an ameba, a single cell-controlling bion with a learned program for detecting the chemical markers of food and then moving the ameba towards that food (and likewise for detecting repellent chemical markers and then moving the ameba away from those markers), is all that’s needed to make a good decision as to which direction to move. Thus, for such a simple animal as an ameba, there is no reason to believe that it has a soliton and its owned bions, deciding how that ameba should move. Thus, an ameba does not have an awareness.
Higher up on the complexity scale are insects. I have been living in Florida USA for many years, and with its warm weather there are a lot of insects in Florida. Observing different kinds of insects, and how they react when I intrude into their space, they all have immediate reactions that show no sign of any weighing of options by a soliton ruler. However, given their senses, and four or more legs to control, and for some insects also wings, I have no doubt that the insect mind consists of many bions and many learned programs, but I can’t find any reason to believe that an insect is guided by a soliton/mind. Thus, an insect does not have an awareness.
For a given insect species, when an insect of that species develops, my guess is that its mind—the bions that will end up being that insect’s mind—will be a group of bions that initially don’t have the learned programs needed by that species, but, by means of the learning algorithms in the computing-element program, will copy, when those bions are asleep, the learned programs needed for that insect’s mind from some other nearby insect mind that currently has the learned programs for that species. I think it likely that this copying is from the mother insect’s mind to what will be the mind bions in each of her developing insect eggs while those eggs are still in her body.
Moving higher up on the complexity scale, at what point is an animal likely to have a soliton/mind instead of just a mind. My belief, which is partially based on my direct experience with dogs and cats, is that the members of many of the larger and more intelligent animal species—such as dogs and cats (and all their relatives, such as wolves and lions), elephants, dolphins, horses, apes, chimpanzees, and owls—each have a soliton/mind instead of just a mind. But exactly where does the dividing-line fall? In other words, of those animal species that clearly have a complex mind with complex senses and complex movements, and can pause in judgment as to how to react to its environment, which of those animal species, if any, lack a soliton? This is not an easy question. For example, do cattle have solitons and consequently are conscious? The mere fact that cattle are routinely butchered for food in many countries does not necessarily mean that these animals lack a soliton. (I’m a meat-eater myself, but if an animal has an awareness and is to be killed for food, its killing should be done as quickly and painlessly as possible.)
 The word soliton is a coined word which I made up as follows: solit from the word solitary, and the on suffix to denote a particle.
 Because bions have no awareness, it follows that our human minds, being composed of bions, are always unconscious. However, in this book I often use the phrase unconscious mind when I want to emphasize something happening in a soliton’s mind that is not brought to the attention of that soliton (the soliton has no awareness of that happening).
The existence of a solitary particle of awareness, the soliton, is supported by a rare projection experience: During an otherwise ordinary out-of-body projection, the following happens (however, I don’t know whether this happening is initiated by the mind or by the soliton): Much of the ordinary communications from the mind to the soliton is, in effect, stopped, and this includes stopping all the normal sensory info that is sent to the awareness during an out-of-body projection. But, at the same time, the soliton remains awake (section 9.3). Call this projection experience a solitonic projection.
A solitonic projection can happen to someone without a prior history of out-of-body experiences, but this seems to be very rare. More likely, a solitonic projection can happen to experienced lucid-dream projectionists, and to bion-body projectionists. The Om meditation method, described in chapter 4, has the potential to elicit a solitonic projection.
The comparative rarity of solitonic projections is indicated by a reading of the principal Upanishads. There seems to be confusion when most of the principal Upanishads talk about the awareness—called the soul in the verses that follow. However, the Katha Upanishad appears knowledgeable on the subject:
Know thou the soul as riding in a chariot,
The body as the chariot.
Know thou the intellect as the chariot-driver,
And the mind as the reins.
The above verse from the Katha Upanishad portrays the awareness as separate from the mind, just as the soliton is separate from its owned bions.
Though He is hidden in all things,
That Soul shines not forth.
But he is seen by subtle seers
With superior, subtle intellect.
A certain wise man, while seeking immortality,
Introspectively beheld the Soul face to face.
The above two verses from the Katha Upanishad are probably talking about a solitonic projection. The starting point of a solitonic projection is either a lucid-dream projection or a bion-body projection. With much of one’s mind no longer sending data to one’s awareness, the following is experienced: One finds oneself existing as a completely bodiless and mostly mindless awareness—residing at the center of a sphere. All the normal sensory inputs to the awareness are gone. But it is typically still possible to think to oneself, in which case some communication with one’s mind is still happening. Also, one cannot later recall a solitonic projection unless it is remembered. Therefore, any remembered solitonic projection always involves some interaction between the soliton and its mind, storing memories of that experience.
The perception of a surrounding spherical shell—around the point-like awareness—appears to be a common feature of a solitonic projection. Given the solitonic-projection data, it seems that the apparent shell is only a few centimeters in diameter. A more detailed description of this shell is given in subsection 10.1.2.
Solitonic projections are typically short in duration—lasting less than a minute, or perhaps only a few seconds. For a solitonic projection that occurs during a lucid-dream projection, it typically begins during the sudden acceleration that occurs for long-distance travel. In contrast, a solitonic projection that occurs during a bion-body projection typically begins when the bion-body is stationary.
Based on the scanty reports of solitonic projections scattered in the literature, and also based on the two solitonic projections I myself had (see chapter 10), the awareness is separate from the mind. Besides the separateness of the awareness, the point-like quality of the awareness—as experienced during a solitonic projection—is compatible with the awareness being associated with a single particle.
In our lives as humans, we cannot directly perceive another person’s awareness. Instead, we simply infer that other people each have an awareness, because oneself has an awareness. This lack of being able to directly perceive the awareness in another person also applies when out-of-body during lucid dreams and bion-body projections. In my own lucid dreams and bion-body projections, I never had any way of “seeing” another person’s awareness. We each experience our own awareness, but the awareness of others is always invisible and we only infer it is there in them, because that is more reasonable than to assume that only oneself has an awareness. Given that the awareness of others is always invisible to oneself, that is one of the reasons why I concluded in section 3.8 that the computing-element program only allows a soliton’s owned bions to interact with that soliton, and none of the other particles in existence in the universe can interact with that soliton.
 Hume, op. cit., p. 351.
 Hume, op. cit., p. 352.
 Hume, op. cit., p. 353.
Intelligent particles have an unknown lifetime. In the case of a soliton/mind, one could, for example, imagine that when a soliton and its owned bions are created, a big integer named this_soliton’s_accumulated_clock_ticks is in that soliton’s state information and is initialized to zero and will serve as a timer counting how many clock ticks have elapsed since that soliton’s creation, and when some specific large number of clock ticks have elapsed, that soliton and its owned bions are then, in effect, erased (as a soliton moves thru 3D space, its this_soliton’s_accumulated_clock_ticks value is updated in the same way that this_bion’s_accumulated_clock_ticks is updated; see subsection 3.8.6 regarding this_bion’s_accumulated_clock_ticks). However, there is no real way to know how much longer a given soliton/mind will remain in existence. I’m guessing that because our sun has another four or five billion years of life left, that each soliton/mind in our solar system also has that much time left. But this is just a guess, with the idea that when a new solar system comes into existence, a large population of solitons and their owned bions is created by the computing-element program—along with creating a large population of non-owned bions—to inhabit that solar system.
In the case of a physically embodied human, or other kind of physically embodied animal that has a soliton/mind, one’s life-cycle alternates between having a physical body and not having a physical body, and the time without a physical body is referred to as the afterlife. For we humans, assuming a typical death, there are two stages to the afterlife, first the bion-body stage of the afterlife, followed by the lucid-dream stage of the afterlife:
Subsection 5.2.3 gives a detailed procedure for a bion-body projection, and the first paragraph of step 1 states that the cell-controlling bions composing the afterlife bion-body have USID_1 value MY_CELL_IS_IN_STASIS, instead of USID_1 value MY_CELL_IS_ACTIVE. The main difference for the bion-body projection, is that the MY_CELL_IS_IN_STASIS bions can be away from their cells for a long time—perhaps years or many years—without trying to return to their cells or trying to find newly formed cells to occupy, whereas the MY_CELL_IS_ACTIVE bions will return to their cells within minutes after leaving them (my estimate, based on my approximately 100 bion-body projections, is that MY_CELL_IS_ACTIVE bions will return to their cells after about one minute).
Assuming a typical death for one’s physical body, in which one’s heart has stopped beating and one’s physical body remains intact or mostly intact for about five minutes after one’s heart has stopped, then a dense afterlife bion-body will form, having the same size and shape as one’s human body, and one’s awareness/mind will have this afterlife bion-body as the first stage of its afterlife existence.,,
The bion-body stage of the afterlife for one’s awareness/mind will last until either one’s awareness/mind decides to abandon its afterlife bion-body, or the time limit expires after whatever the time limit is before the MY_CELL_IS_IN_STASIS bions composing that afterlife bion-body change their USID_1 value to HAVE_NO_CELL and they then leave that bion-body to find and occupy newly formed cells. Either way, whether because one’s awareness/mind has abandoned its afterlife bion-body, or because the bions composing one’s afterlife bion-body have reached their timed limit and have left that bion-body, the first stage of the afterlife for one’s awareness/mind ends.
When a bion in the afterlife bion-body changes its USID_1 value from MY_CELL_IS_IN_STASIS to HAVE_NO_CELL, assume that that bion stops running whatever other learned programs it might be running and instead just runs the learned program(s) that will allow that bion to find and occupy a newly formed cell. Among other things, this run stoppage by that bion means that it will stop running for itself step 7 in the procedure given in subsection 5.2.3, which was keeping that bion with that afterlife bion-body. Once that bion moves away from that afterlife bion-body, it may, in effect, because of the other bions in that afterlife bion-body that are still running step 7, drag that afterlife bion-body after itself. However, it is probably true that many or all of the bions composing one’s afterlife bion-body have the same time limit for how long a human-body-cell’s bion can have MY_CELL_IS_IN_STASIS set as its USID_1 value before that value is changed to HAVE_NO_CELL. Assuming that all the bions composing one’s afterlife bion-body changed their USID_1 value to MY_CELL_IS_IN_STASIS within a few minutes of each other at the time of physical death, and assuming the same time limit for the bions composing one’s afterlife bion-body, then, after that time limit has elapsed for the first bions in one’s afterlife bion-body that had changed their USID_1 value to MY_CELL_IS_IN_STASIS, that entire afterlife bion-body will completely disintegrate in a short span of a few minutes as each of its composing bions reaches its time limit and changes its USID_1 value to HAVE_NO_CELL and leaves that bion-body to find and occupy a newly formed cell, and this disintegration will happen regardless of whether or not one’s awareness/mind is still, in effect, inhabiting that bion-body.
As far as I know, the bion-body stage of the afterlife typically has a short duration of a few weeks or months, and I assume that the reason for this short duration is voluntary abandonment of the afterlife bion-body by its occupying awareness/mind. Reasons to abandon the afterlife bion-body include the possibility of unwanted body feelings, such as feeling pain, while in it: Assuming one still has one’s allocation for body feelings (section 9.7) during one’s bion-body stage of the afterlife, one’s mind has the potential to send to one’s awareness unwanted body feelings regarding one’s afterlife bion-body, such as the pain feeling, at one or more times during one’s time in one’s afterlife bion-body, even though one’s afterlife bion-body—unlike one’s physical body—has no needs and cannot be damaged. Whether or not any unwanted body feelings happen to a typical person during his time in his afterlife bion-body, I don’t know and I have no data. A possible scenario in which one’s mind might send to one’s awareness unwanted body feelings is the possibility of one’s afterlife bion-body being attacked by one or more other bion bodies, such as when the projected Sylvan Muldoon was attacked by a recently deceased neighbor. However, for the typical person, fights during the bion-body stage of the afterlife can probably be avoided, just as physical fights can typically be avoided during our human lives (this assumes civilized people).
Regarding feeling pain during a bion-body projection, I don’t recall feeling pain during any of my bion-body projections, although I do remember feeling the swirling of particles thruout the interior of my dense bion-body, including in the arms and legs of my dense bion-body, during my one dense bion-body projection (subsection 10.1.1). Thus, I had a conscious feeling that my awareness perceived as being localized in my projected bion-body, and this is similar to how one consciously feels pain in one’s physical body: in a typical instance of feeling body pain, one’s awareness perceives that pain as being localized to a specific spot on or in one’s physical body. Thus, when another bion-body projectionist says that he felt pain in his projected bion-body, I have no good reason to doubt him. For example, if a bion-body projectionist says that he felt pain while being attacked by another projected bion-body, then my guess is that his mind, by analogy with the protective needs of his physical body, was sending the pain feeling to his awareness so as to, in effect, motivate his awareness to defend and protect his projected bion-body, even though his projected bion-body is invulnerable to any damage from an attack by another projected bion-body.
During the bion-body stage of the afterlife, assuming one’s bion-body has sufficient density to have triggered the activation of one’s mind’s third-eye and third-ear (subsection 5.2.3, step 5), one can see and hear the physical world, and one’s vision of bions will also be operating at the same time as one’s third-eye vision, because one is in a bion-body (see subsection 5.2.2 regarding vision of bions). Both vision systems operating simultaneously, with their respective generated images composited together and then sent to the awareness to be consciously seen (section 5.4), gives the result that Sylvan Muldoon experienced, and that I experienced during my one dense bion-body projection, of seeing simultaneously both a part of one’s bion-body and a part of the physical world (the parts that are within one’s current field of view).
However, even though one will be able to see and hear the physical world in one’s afterlife bion-body, you won’t be able to make contact with, and move, physical objects, because, as already discussed in section 5.4 regarding the projected bion-body of humans and other animals, each of their bion bodies, being composed of cell-controlling bions, lacks the programming in the learned programs of those cell-controlling bions that would allow that bion-body to move or otherwise disturb any of the physical objects around it.
Regarding voluntary abandonment by an awareness/mind of its afterlife bion-body, and also regarding what others have written in the past about how long a person (awareness/mind) remains as an Earth-bound ghost after he dies: One can assume that the ghost of a person is that person’s afterlife bion-body, and being Earth-bound means that that person (awareness/mind) is still inhabiting his afterlife bion-body and is using his mind’s third-eye and third-ear to observe the physical human world that he was recently a part of before dying, which means that he must remain a close distance to the physical environment of humans—thus the term Earth-bound—so that he can see and hear physically alive people and their physical environment (section 5.4 describes in detail how the third-eye and third-ear work, by seeing physical light, aka photons, and hearing physical sounds). Because the third-eye sees by means of physical light, the Earth-bound ghost has the same limitations seeing physical things as someone who is still in his physical human body. For example, to see what is happening in a closed, lit room without windows, the Earth-bound ghost must be inside that room, because physical light is blocked by the floor, ceiling, and walls of that physical room. And the situation is similar in the case of physical sounds, because physical obstructions, such as walls, lessen the sounds that pass thru them. Thus, to hear a conversation in a closed room between two physically embodied persons, the Earth-bound ghost, just like when he still had his physical body, can best hear that conversation by being in that room with those two persons.
With the assumptions of the previous paragraph as to the meaning of the terms ghost and Earth-bound, it is probably true, as others have written in the past, that, on average: A young person is likely to remain Earth-bound longer than an elderly person. The reason is that an elderly person has already had a full human lifetime and is more likely to voluntarily abandon his afterlife bion-body sooner than a young person. Also, a person who had a violent death is likely to remain Earth-bound longer than a person of the same age who had a peaceful death. The reason is that a person who lost his life as a result of violence probably has more reasons—reasons related to his death—to remain an observer of the physical human world than a person of the same age who had a peaceful death, because having more reasons to remain Earth-bound will, in general, probably result in being Earth-bound longer than otherwise, and this means delaying any voluntary abandonment of one’s afterlife bion-body.
Regardless of whether the abandonment of one’s afterlife bion-body was voluntary due to conscious or unconscious choice, or involuntary due to the disintegration of one’s afterlife bion-body, the following is true: When one no longer has one’s afterlife bion-body and is just an awareness/mind without a body, one’s mind changes conscious vision and hearing (the vision and hearing that is sent to the awareness) so that it is no longer from the third-eye and third-ear and from the vision of bions, but instead is from lucid-dream vision and telepathic hearing (my guess is that telepathic hearing is also active during the bion-body stage of the afterlife, but with a lower priority than hearing with the third-ear). Without a body, and having lucid-dream vision and telepathic hearing as one’s primary senses, one has started the next stage of the afterlife which is the lucid-dream stage of the afterlife, during which one is just an awareness/mind.
Unlike the bion-body stage of the afterlife, which typically has a short duration of a few weeks or months, the lucid-dream stage of the afterlife can last for many years, even centuries. In general, without a body there are no body-related pains or distress during the lucid-dream stage of the afterlife. Instead, one leads a benign and possibly enjoyable existence, and one will also be more intelligent than when one had a body (regarding being more intelligent during the lucid-dream stage of the afterlife, see the discussion at the end of section 9.7). However, at some point the lucid-dream stage of the afterlife ends in some form of rebirth (aka reincarnation) which will give one a new body (for the typical human, this will be a new human body).,,
Note that my mind’s third-eye and third-ear were never active during any of my approximately 400 lucid dreams that I had, and I think it likely that one’s third-eye and third-ear will remain, in effect, dormant during the lucid-dream stage of the afterlife, until one is near the time for reincarnation, assuming one is going to reincarnate as physically embodied again. Having one’s third-eye and third-ear active during one’s search for which family to reincarnate into would be very helpful, because one would be able to see the physical bodies of potential parents, and hear them speak (whether or not one understands the language they are speaking is a separate consideration), and also see and hear the physical environment in which they live.
Regarding our personal memories and how long they last: As stated in section 3.8, after a soliton and its owned bions are created by the computing-element program, the computing-element program will keep that soliton and its owned bions together, and the number of those owned bions is fixed and unchanging (no additions nor deletions regarding the bions owned by a soliton). Regarding memories, such as our own personal memories, including memories of events in our own lives, for each of us these memories are stored in one’s mind (the soliton’s owned bions). However, because there is a fixed limit on the size of a bion’s memory, and also there is a fixed unchanging number of bions composing one’s mind, there is a limit on how many memories and how much other data a mind can retain. The management of one’s memories depends on the learned programs in one’s mind. However, as available storage for memories becomes filled, storing new memories requires replacing old memories. Thus, one’s mind either forgets one’s past or one’s present, and, because in general, newer memories are more valuable and relevant to one’s current situation than older memories, we humans, as time passes, forget details from our past. This finite memory that each of us has, is also an underlying reason why, for at least most of us, we have no memories of our existence before our current human life.
For a soliton/mind whose current life cycle includes a physical embodiment in our world, to what extent can that soliton/mind move from one animal type to a different animal type, with humanity obviously being at the top. For example, can a pet cat—after perhaps first transitioning thru one or more other animal types that are closer to the human type than the cat type—eventually reincarnate as a human. Also, conversely, does it ever happen that someone who is currently human later reincarnates as some non-human animal, such as, for example, a chimpanzee. As the author of this book, I have no data on this subject of a soliton/mind transitioning from one animal type to a different animal type, although, given the reality model presented in this book, I am certain that it happens. Also, ignoring other considerations for the moment, a current human is most likely to reincarnate as human again, and, in general, a soliton/mind that is currently a non-human animal is most likely, after its time in the afterlife, to reincarnate as that same animal type again. In other words, once one is a specific animal type, whether human or otherwise, it is easier to remain that same animal type from one reincarnation to the next.
If you are currently tired of the negatives of human life and want to escape the so-called “wheel of rebirth”—I’m not currently in this group of those who want to escape human life, because I look forward to, and am optimistic about, my next human embodiment—you can always aspire to eventually leave behind a life cycle that includes physical embodiment, and, if you meet whatever the requirements are, either join the Caretaker civilization (section 7.6) or whatever other intelligent civilizations there may be in our Earthly environment whose members have no physical embodiment in their life cycle. However, as with transitioning to a different animal type, I have no data on humans transitioning to a life cycle that has no physical embodiment, other than to say that it is possible and I believe that it happens—and likewise for transitioning in the opposite direction.
In general, regarding a soliton/mind transitioning to a different type than its current type, and assuming there is a big enough difference between the two types to require a replacement of its mind’s learned programs: Its mind (the owned bions of its soliton) needs to have its current learned programs replaced with a copy of the learned programs that are in a different mind that currently has the programming for that different type to be transitioned to, and this copying of learned programs from one mind to another mind can only happen when both minds are asleep (section 9.3). Also, in the specific case of transitioning from one animal type to a different animal type, and assuming there is a big enough difference between the two animal types to require a replacement of the mind’s learned programs—an actual example that probably sometimes happens, is the transitioning of an awareness/mind from being a chimpanzee in Africa, to being in its next incarnation an african human—I guess that a good time for this copying to happen is after that soliton/mind has selected and moved close to a fetus of the wanted animal type to be transitioned to, and then the learned programs for the mind of that wanted animal type can probably be copied from the mind of the mother when both the mother’s soliton/mind and that soliton/mind are asleep. Note that the copying of all the learned programs from one solitonic mind (the owned bions of a soliton) to a different solitonic mind is made easy by the assumption that every soliton has the same number of owned bions. One can assume that this copying is done by a routine in the computing-element program (and this copying would not include any copying of personal memories, which means that a soliton with a freshly copied new mind will start with zero personal memories). Regarding a decision by a soliton/mind to transition to a different type, I suppose that the desire of the soliton (awareness) is the most important factor, and the unconscious mind is also involved.
For a given soliton/mind, in the case of transitioning from its current type to a different type that results in a complete replacement of all the learned programs in its mind, what is still the same? The soliton is still the same, unchanged, and presumably it is still in the habit of working with the previous set of learned programs in its mind, but now there is a new set of learned programs in its mind that that soliton must work with. In this case, I think it is very likely that there will be a learning process for that soliton to learn the capabilities of this new set of learned programs in its mind, and how best to interact with this new set of learned programs in its mind. Also, for something as complex as the human mind, it may take the typical soliton, which most likely had a non-human animal mind previously, at least several human lifetimes or perhaps many human lifetimes to fully learn, in effect, the ins and outs of its new human mind, and how best to adapt to it and interact with it. Recall that the soliton is not just a recipient of info from its mind, but the soliton must also be able to give guidance and feedback to its mind. The messages are going in both directions, both from its mind to the soliton, and from the soliton to its mind. Given that a big difference between humans and the other animals in our world is our language ability, a soliton in its first human life, and also perhaps in at least its first several human lives, may typically be, in effect, very stupid, because the extensive language capabilities of the human mind are new to that soliton, assuming that before getting its human mind that soliton had a non-human animal mind with very limited language abilities.
 As a hypothetical, what would happen if the death of one’s physical body was caused by being very close to a nuclear bomb when it exploded? In this scenario, one’s entire physical body would be blown to tiny bits and burned up very quickly, and the cell-controlling bions in one’s physical body, because they are running the learned program LP_keep_this_bion_close_to_this_physical_atom, would, in effect, chase after their specified atoms as those atoms, on average, rapidly move away from each other, with the result that the cell-controlling bions in one’s physical body will, on average, be rapidly separating wider and wider from each other. Regarding the detailed procedure for a bion-body projection that I give in subsection 5.2.3, which includes the formation of the afterlife bion-body, I can think of three reasons why that procedure will fail to form the afterlife bion-body in this hypothetical situation of being very close to a nuclear-bomb explosion:
With such a complete and rapid destruction of at least most of the physical cells in one’s physical body, it’s very likely that their cell-controlling bions will change their USID_1 status directly from MY_CELL_IS_ACTIVE to HAVE_NO_CELL, in which case step 1 of the procedure for forming the afterlife bion-body, which expects MY_CELL_IS_IN_STASIS as the USID_1 value, will fail.
Regarding the use_this_send_distance value when the BB_PROJECTION_REQUEST message is sent in step 1: Although I didn’t suggest a use_this_send_distance value in that procedure for sending the BB_PROJECTION_REQUEST message, a reasonable value is 10 feet (about 3 meters) given that the length of the human body is less than 10 feet, and this would be more than enough so that the sent BB_PROJECTION_REQUEST message reaches every cell in a human’s physical body assuming that physical body is intact. But with such an extreme explosion, probably most of the cell-controlling bions in one’s physical body will be out of range and not even receive the BB_PROJECTION_REQUEST message when it is sent in step 1.
The procedure in its step 3 expects short separation distances for skin-cell bions, which won’t be the case after such an extreme explosion.
Also, note that the procedure for forming the afterlife bion-body presumably evolved to be compatible with the typical post-death situation, which would be an intact or mostly intact physical body at both the time of death and minutes later. Thus, it’s very unlikely that that procedure would have evolved any programming for rare physical-destruction scenarios.
If for whatever reason the afterlife bion-body does not form, what then? Without an afterlife bion-body, that would only mean that that person (awareness/mind) will skip the bion-body stage of the afterlife and instead begin its afterlife with the lucid-dream stage of the afterlife. Thus, not a big loss.
Considering a less extreme scenario, but one that is happening in our human world when I am writing this footnote in 2016, what if death resulted from having one’s head cut off and then placed on one’s back, as I’ve seen done in a few Islamic-State videos on the internet. In this case, none of the three reasons given above would apply to keep the afterlife bion-body from forming, although the person (awareness/mind) who will inhabit that afterlife bion-body may quickly abandon it because his bion-body head is stuck to his bion-body back. If instead, one’s head after being cut off is quickly moved far enough away from the physical body that the above reason 2 applies, then, in that case, if there are enough skin-cell bions in just the head to still form the afterlife bion-body (avoiding the BB_PROJECTION_CANCEL message at the beginning of step 4), then most of that person’s afterlife bion-body will be missing, being composed of just cell-controlling bions from his head. In this scenario, especially if the number of non-skin-cell bions in the afterlife bion-body—which in this case is just a bion-body head—is not large enough to trigger activation of the third eye and third ear (see step 5), then that person (awareness/mind) having just that afterlife bion-body head, will probably quickly abandon it and begin the lucid-dream stage of the afterlife.
A somewhat different scenario is: What if one is caught in a physical event that kills one’s physical body and breaks it into a number of mostly intact pieces (intact so that most of the cell-controlling bions of the cells in those pieces, will set their USID_1 value to MY_CELL_IS_IN_STASIS after a few minutes), and there are enough of these pieces within range (regarding reason 2 above) so that the afterlife bion-body forms. In this case, the afterlife bion-body will be in pieces (and perhaps with some bion-body pieces visibly missing because either the corresponding physical-body pieces were out of range regarding reason 2 above, or those visibly missing bion-body pieces are actually there but are too far away to be seen by one’s mind’s vision of bions which has only a short range of perhaps less than ten feet). But after the person (awareness/mind) gets used to seeing that his afterlife bion-body is in pieces, insofar as he can see this, and assuming there were enough non-skin-cell bions in his afterlife bion-body to trigger activation of his third eye and third ear, then he will probably soon switch his mental focus to what he can see and hear in our human world, and where he can go to in our human world.
As a completely different kind of scenario, consider a patient in a hospital who is brain dead but his physical body is on life-support (a ventilator that, in effect, keeps his body breathing). In this case, the cell-controlling bions occupying the cells of his physical body are still there with that physical body, keeping it alive. In the typical brain-dead case, the lack of brain activity is probably a consequence of the awareness/mind that had that physical body having abandoned that physical body sometime before. But, because his physical body was still alive when his awareness/mind abandoned it, he was unable to form the afterlife bion-body because the MY_CELL_IS_IN_STASIS cell-controlling bions needed to form the afterlife bion-body were not there because his physical body was still alive, leaving his awareness/mind no choice but to begin his afterlife with the lucid-dream stage of the afterlife.
 This first stage of the afterlife should not be confused with the many published accounts of NDEs (near-death experiences). During an NDE, the person having the NDE has not yet died.
There is a large literature on NDEs, and journalist Pierre Jovanovic summarizes the typical experience: “The subject suddenly finds himself outside his body, floats up to the ceiling and observes what is happening around his physical envelope. … In general the patient does not understand what is happening to him, above all when he discovers that he can pass through walls or when he tries to explain to the doctors that he is not dead. [then] After this observation period, he feels himself sucked at extraordinary speed into a tunnel (drain, pipeline, shaft, tube, canal, etc.) at the end of which he sees a light beckoning him on. … After having traveled through the tunnel, the subject may meet near and dear ones who died earlier. [then] Fusion with the light, which seems like a living being made of light, overflowing with an unconditional love for the subject. His whole life passes before him like a film, in the space of ten seconds, but in three dimensions, with the effects of his actions and words experienced by others. [then] A dialogue (not aloud but in thought) with the Light being, who ends the encounter by saying: ‘Your hour has not come; you must return and finish your job.’ Sometimes the subject is asked, ‘Do you wish to stay here or return?’ [then] Return to the body.” (Jovanovic, Pierre. An Inquiry into the Existence of Guardian Angels. M. Evans and Co., New York, 1995. pp. 29–30).
The typical NDE is a lucid-dream projection. The part about being “sucked at extraordinary speed into a tunnel (drain, pipeline, shaft, tube, canal, etc.) at the end of which,” is clearly a description of the acceleration and high-speed movement of that person’s awareness/mind to a remote location that, in the typical case, is probably many hundreds or thousands of kilometers distant (as mentioned in section 5.3, intelligent particles can accelerate rapidly to a speed of at least several hundred kilometers per second).
Distant travel, as a common feature of NDEs, is not surprising. An NDE can potentially happen to a person anywhere, but the “near and dear ones who died earlier,” and especially the “Light being,” are going to be at some more or less fixed location in the afterlife domain, which presumably envelops the Earth. Also, the “Light being”—who is, perhaps, a Caretaker (section 7.6)—may be a specialist in handling NDE encounters. And just as people typically travel as needed to the various specialists in their daily lives, so with an NDE: typically the person having the NDE travels to the specialist, instead of the specialist coming to him.
Regarding the NDE’s life-review, the life-review is presumably internally generated by that person’s mind (and not generated by the “Light being”). In effect, the life-review is a highly condensed highlights film: only the self-judged significant parts are reviewed (for example, don’t expect to see a review of what you were doing ten minutes ago, whatever that was).
There is not much time for the life-review to take place, so the data is fed to the soliton at a much higher data rate than is normal for waking consciousness. After the NDE, when the person remembers the life-review experience, that remembering takes place at the normal data rate. This causes the person remembering the experience to make typically exaggerated comments about how his whole life was lived in a few moments—when he compares the believed duration of the original experience with the duration of the remembering.
Note that the feeding of data to the soliton at a much higher data rate than normal is also at least sometimes present during the happening of a serious accident for the person undergoing that accident. I have an incident from my own life that illustrates this: In 1986 I was in my car, a 1984 Mercury Capri, stopped at a red traffic light, waiting behind a large garbage truck. Then the traffic light changed to green, and the traffic in the adjoining lane, going in the same direction as my car, was already moving. But for some reason the garbage truck in front of me was not moving. A few seconds passed, and I was just sitting there in my car waiting for that garbage truck to move—wondering why it wasn’t moving. Then, time suddenly slowed: as if in slow motion, my car, with me in it, was thrown forward, smashing into the back tires of that garbage truck, which had still not moved (my car had been hit from behind by a red MG sports car, driven by a young woman who was bloodied and hurt from that crash, but not too badly, although her car was totaled; I had my seat-belt on, and also my seat’s head-rest was up to prevent the possibility of whiplash in the event of an accident, and I was not hurt, but my car was damaged at both the car’s front end and back end). The garbage truck was only a few feet in front of my car, and it seems safe to say that from the moment of the initial impact from behind, until the moment that my car was stopped by its impact with that garbage truck, that less than a second had elapsed. And yet, my experience and memory of that time period seemed to last for many seconds (a rough guess would be somewhere between five and ten seconds).
As a final note regarding the soliton and its perception of the passage of time, it is a common observation that a day seems longer when one is a child, and gets shorter as one grows older. The likely explanation is that the average rate at which data is fed to the soliton decreases with age: time shortens as one grows older.
 In the previous footnote I gave an account of the slow-motion effect I had experienced during a car accident in 1986. In this footnote, regarding this subject of the slow-motion effect during a car accident, I add the following text from a written note I made less than two hours after my talk with a nurse on this subject in mid-October 2013 (edited in 2015 for improved clarity):
On Monday morning October 14, 2013, at our house in Gainesville Florida USA, hospice CNA Terry (CNA = Certified Nursing Assistant) was here for dad’s bed-bath etc, and while talking with her she mentioned that she had had a bad car accident about two years before, and that prompted me to ask if she had had the same slow-motion effect that I had had during my 1986 car accident which I briefly told her about. She said yes, and that prompted further questioning from me resulting in the following details: Her accident happened when someone had stepped out onto the road in front of her car which was moving at about 50 miles-per-hour, and she swerved off the road to avoid hitting him, and her car rolled over three times down an embankment. The slow-motion effect for her began once she realized she had lost control of her car right before the start of the rollovers, and lasted until her car came to a stop (for my car accident, like hers, my slow-motion effect ended when my car had stopped moving). She had several physical injuries from her car accident and she spent some time in a hospital afterwards recovering.
She said that she was so interested in that slow-motion effect that had happened to her during her car accident, that after being treated in the hospital for her injuries and then returning to her nursing job—she had a job in a hospital helping to care for emergency-room admissions—she asked every patient who was there because of a car accident if they had had the slow-motion effect (upon my questioning of her as to how many car-accident victims she had asked, she made clear that it was dozens but a lot less than 100), and she repeatedly emphasized to me that without exception they all answered either that they didn’t have any memory of their car accident or that they did indeed have the slow-motion effect during their car accident; thus, many said that they had had the slow-motion effect. I’ll just add that although Terry and those post-car-accident hospital patients she questioned all had physical injuries from their accidents, being injured as a result of the accident is not a requirement of having and/or remembering the slow-motion effect, because I had no injuries as a result of my 1986 car accident, but I certainly had the same slow-motion effect as my car accident happened, and my memory of that slow-motion of my car accident is still with me after about 27 years, since it was so memorable to me (it’s October 14, 2013 as I write this paragraph).
Also, during our conversation on this slow-motion effect, after asking her a number of questions about her car accident and slow-motion effect, Terry asked me about my own slow-motion car-accident experience: had I seen the accident coming, as she had seen hers coming (that man stepping out onto the road in front of her car), because she thought maybe one had to see the accident coming to get the slow-motion effect. But, as I said in answer to her, I had not seen my car accident coming, because I was stopped at a red light behind a garbage truck waiting for that garbage truck to start moving after that red light had changed to green, and yet my slow-motion experience began with the start of the movement forward of my car after being hit from behind by that red MG sports car, which I only saw for the first time after the car accident was over and I had gotten out of my car.
 Rebirth is an old belief with a long history, and there is a large literature. The psychiatrist Ian Stevenson has collected over 2,600 reported cases of past-life memories, and he has written extensively on the subject. In one of his books (Stevenson, Ian. Where Reincarnation and Biology Intersect. Praeger Publishers, Westport CT, 1997), Stevenson presents cases that show a correlation between conditions or happenings in the most recent previous life, and current marks or defects on the body. For example, in some cases a birthmark marks the location of a fatal wound received in the previous life.
Regarding what accompanies the soliton into the new body, there are several considerations: the fact that the soliton finds its way into the new body; the evidence in the literature that some children accurately recall at least some details from their most recent previous life; the evidence presented by Stevenson that the new body can be marked according to conditions or happenings in the previous life. These various considerations are consistent with the soliton and its owned bions (its mind) remaining together, not just during the afterlife, but also into the next physically embodied life (one’s rebirth), accounting for the navigation to the new body, the past-life memories, and the marks made on the new body.
 Assuming rebirth, and assuming that most of those currently being born as human were also human in their previous embodied life, this means that because the embodied human population has grown manyfold in the last few centuries (I am writing this footnote in 2005), the average time spent in the afterlife between one embodied human life and the next, has decreased proportionately during that time. As the embodied human population continues to grow, the average time spent in the afterlife between successive human embodiments will continue to decrease.
My own opinion, based on my study of the rebirth literature and other considerations, is that about a century or two before the end of the 20th century, the average time between successive human embodiments was measured in centuries, but by the end of the 20th century the average time between successive human embodiments is measured in decades, perhaps only a few decades. At some point the embodied human population will stop growing and start shrinking, and the current trend toward less time in the afterlife will reverse.
 Astrology associates solar and/or planetary positions—relative to the Earth—with specific influences on human personality and/or events. For any given culture that has an astrological system, there may be a kernel of truth in that system, but the rest of the system is probably dross that has accumulated over time, due to the need of professional astrologers to add to the complexity of the system and broaden its claims, so as to increase the demand for their services and the amount of money they can charge for those services.
In the case of the astrological system of the European peoples, there seems to be, in at least some cases, a correlation between personality and sun sign (i.e., the person has, to some extent, the personality predicted by his birth zodiac sign: Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, or Pisces).
Such a correlation is possible, given the computing-element reality model, but the details of the mechanism by which the correlation is maintained are not clear. One possibility is that there is some sort of “birds of a feather, flock together” effect going on, in which people are reborn in large groups that self-segregate in terms of when during the year they will be born, based on planned personality characteristics in the next life.
 The Caretakers (section 7.6), on average, may be longer lived than humans, but not immortal. In a hypothetical society of immortals, relearning forgotten or soon-to-be-forgotten material would be an ongoing process.
With regard to their physical bodies, children resemble their parents. Also, it is known that at least many physical characteristics are coded in one’s DNA, which is a mix of the biological parents’ DNA. Thus, one’s physical body is inherited from one’s biological parents.
Regarding mental qualities, it’s a common observation that stupid parents tend to have stupid children, and intelligent parents tend to have intelligent children. More specifically, the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer in the 19th century said that general intelligence seems to be inherited from the mother, and personality from the father. I initially agreed with Schopenhauer on this inheritance, and in the 11th edition of this book I said “for a typical person, copied from each parent is a partial allocation plan (section 9.6) that determines to a large extent intelligence (the partial allocation plan copied from the mother) and personality (the partial allocation plan copied from the father)”. However, for the 12th edition of this book, I have changed my thinking on this subject, and with the exception of one’s first human life when one’s human mind is copied from one’s biological mother, I believe there is a “birds of a feather, flock together” effect going on. Specifically, for a typical person in the afterlife who already has a human mind, when that person is ready to end his stay in the afterlife and be reborn as a human again, he searches—either consciously or unconsciously—for a human family to be born into, that, among other considerations, will be compatible with the kind of intelligence and personality that he—either consciously or unconsciously—expects to have as an adult in his new human life. Thus, as the saying goes, like seeks like, but there will always be exceptions, and also mistakes made, but for most people, they will search for parents that they will be compatible with. Thus, a stupid person typically seeks stupid parents, and an intelligent person typically seeks intelligent parents. And also, my guess is that the unconscious mind of the mother, and perhaps also the unconscious mind of the father, typically communicate with one or more potential candidates to become their child, and these communications have the potential to influence who will become their child.
With, as a rule, the primary goal of the selection process being compatibility between a child and its parents, this search for compatibility also applies to whatever ethnic group and/or nation and/or race those parents belong to. The like-seeks-like effect, both before being born and after being born, causes families to group with other families that they are sufficiently similar to, and this similarity includes similar body characteristics, as well as similar mental characteristics. The end result is different human populations in their own geographical areas; often, but not always, distinguished by at least some physical differences in their bodies compared to other nearby human groups. In political terms, in recent centuries, imperialism often steps in, under different guises, and mixes up these different human populations. However, this mixing by imperialism cannot alter, despite attempts at its suppression, the like-seeks-like effect. In the end, even when it takes centuries, empires and their mixings of human populations are undone. The USA, in which I was born and have spent my life, is one of these mixed imperial creations. Other things being equal, life is simply better when people are able to live with others like themselves.
Regarding the selection by a person in the afterlife of his parents to be, a different consideration involves the general undesirability of old parents (a mother in her forties or older, and/or a father in his fifties or older). Statistics show that, in general, there are likely to be more problems for a child when one or both of its parents were old when that child was born. For example, autism for a child is more likely if at least one of its parents was old when that child was born. Some blame it on old eggs due to the mother being old, and/or defective sperm due to the father being old. However, another possible explanation is that, in general, the afterlife persons that as new children will end up having less problems, are simply less likely, on average, when compared to those afterlife persons that as new children will end up having more problems, to choose for their parents a couple with one or both of them being old. And the simple reason for not wanting an old parent when being born in a new human life, is because, on average, an old parent has fewer years of support that it can give to its child, compared to a young parent. A related consideration is that because an old parent is, in general, less desirable as a parent to those persons in the afterlife awaiting rebirth, that parent will, out of necessity if it wants a new child, have to lower its selection criteria and be willing to accept a new child that is more likely to have problems.
An important factor regarding human populations, is the number of currently qualified candidates waiting in the afterlife to be born into a specific ethnic-group and/or nation and/or race. As a specific example, regarding the so-called baby-boom in the USA from 1945 thru 1965, how much of that baby-boom was due to people who had died prematurely, primarily in Europe, from the mayhem of so-called World War 2 and its aftermath—my guess is a lot. Another example, but involving a shortage of qualified candidates instead of an excess of qualified candidates, is Japan. With many Japanese living into old age, and a current population in 2016 of 128 million, one can give various reasons for Japan’s low birth rate, but I think a major contributor to that low birth rate is that there is simply not enough qualified candidates waiting in the afterlife to be reborn as Japanese, because most of the qualified candidates are already living as Japanese. Also in 2016, the currently low birth rates worldwide for so-called whites is probably also mainly due to not enough qualified candidates waiting in the afterlife to be reborn as white. The correct solution for so-called white countries is not to lower the quality of life for whites by importing people who are incompatible with them—which in 2016, unfortunately, is happening in many countries including the USA—but instead to simply accept whatever population shrinkage happens with whites until an equilibrium population of whites is reached.
As said in section 3.7, “there must be interface programming—existing in one or more learned programs on the brain side, and existing in one or more learned programs on the mind side—that interfaces one’s mind with one’s brain.” This subsection considers this interface programming in more detail.
Animals with brains have been on Earth for a very long time. For example, the Editor’s summary at http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v490/n7419/full/nature11495.html, regarding the 2012 article Complex brain and optic lobes in an early Cambrian arthropod, in the journal Nature, reads as follows:
The Cambrian explosion refers to a time around 530 million years ago, when animals with modern features first appeared in the fossil record. The fossils of Cambrian arthropods reveal sophisticated sense organs such as compound eyes, but other parts of the nervous system are usually lost to decay before fossilization. This paper describes an exquisitely preserved brain in an early arthropod from China, complete with antennal nerves, optic tract and optic neuropils very much like those of modern insects and crustaceans.
In section 3.7 I’ve already given justification, in the case of complex animals with complex senses and movement capabilities, for the brain bions (the cell-controlling bions that occupy and make alive the nerve cells of the brain) to be a separate group of bions than the bions that collectively compose that animal’s mind (its mind analyzes the animal’s sensory data and decides when and how to respond to that sensory data, and that response can include sending activate-muscle messages to the animal’s brain so as to move that animal as that mind wants). And, if the animal has a soliton/mind instead of just a mind, then that awareness, in general, is also involved in the decision-making process regarding that animal’s movements and other voluntary actions.
I’ve already given my reasons in section 6.1 for why I think insects have a mind but not a soliton/mind. Thus, some animals, including insects, have just a mind and are consequently unconscious, and other animals, including the human animal of course, have a soliton/mind and are consequently conscious. However, I think it likely that whatever the detail of the interface programming that developed and evolved hundreds of millions of years ago, that basically the same interface programming is still used today to connect a mind to a brain, regardless of whether that mind has an associated soliton or not, because the presence or absence of a soliton is not directly relevant to the mind/brain interface programming.
The interface programming involves messaging protocols between the brain and the mind. To identify the intended recipient(s) of a sent message when the intended recipient(s) are one or more bions, the send() statement has two mutually exclusive parameters (only one of these two parameters may be used when calling the send() statement): either use the list_of_bions parameter, or use the user_settable_identifiers_block parameter. The list_of_bions parameter identifies the intended recipient(s) by their unique identifiers. The user_settable_identifiers_block parameter is explained in subsection 3.8.2.
Let’s consider the following scenario: You are in the afterlife and are ready to reincarnate as human again, and you have already found the parents you want, and they (their unconscious minds) have, in effect, approved you as their child, and the baby’s body is already developing in the mother, and the brain in that baby has reached sufficient development to start establishing connections with a human mind. And your awareness/mind is nearby ready to connect. What happens now? The problem is that the relevant brain bions that have sensory data to send to the mind, don’t know the unique identifiers of the mind bions that they should send their sensory data to, and likewise, your mind bions that will be sending activate-muscle messages to brain bions in the motor cortex, to cause muscle movements, don’t know the unique identifiers of the brain bions that they should send their activate-muscle messages to. Thus, to establish initial communications between a mind and what will be its brain, the user_settable_identifiers_block parameter of the send() statement must be used.
Regarding the interface programming, assume that there are two different integer constants used, one is named BRAIN_BION_HAS_SENSORY_DATA, and the other is named BRAIN_BION_CAN_ACTIVATE_A_MUSCLE. And in any mind that has interface programming for connecting with a brain, there is one bion in that mind whose seventh integer in its user-settable identifiers block, aka USID_7, is set to the integer value of BRAIN_BION_HAS_SENSORY_DATA. Also, there is one bion in that mind whose USID_7 value is set to the integer value of BRAIN_BION_CAN_ACTIVATE_A_MUSCLE. The mind bion that has the integer value of BRAIN_BION_HAS_SENSORY_DATA as its USID_7 value, will be the recipient of any BRAIN_BION_HAS_SENSORY_DATA messages (described in the next paragraph). And likewise, the mind bion that has the integer value of BRAIN_BION_CAN_ACTIVATE_A_MUSCLE as its USID_7 value, will be the recipient of any BRAIN_BION_CAN_ACTIVATE_A_MUSCLE messages (described in the next paragraph).
When a brain bion has sensory data to send to the mind, but that brain bion does not yet know which specific mind bion to send its sensory-data messages to, that brain bion periodically sends a short-range message, setting the user_settable_identifiers_block parameter of the send() statement as follows: USID_7 (the seventh integer in the user_settable_identifiers_block parameter) is set to BRAIN_BION_HAS_SENSORY_DATA, and the other integers are set to null. That brain bion then sends this BRAIN_BION_HAS_SENSORY_DATA message, with the sensory data in the message text. A specific mind bion (see the previous paragraph) receives this BRAIN_BION_HAS_SENSORY_DATA message. Note that any message sent by a bion always includes a copy of the entire identifier block of that bion when that message was sent. Here, the relevant parts of that identifier block are that bion’s unique identifier and that bion’s user-settable identifiers block which for a cell-controlling bion in a multicellular animal identifies its cell type and other cell-related info (see subsection 3.8.6). With this detail about the sending brain bion and its cell, and also if there is any relevant detail in the message text (for example, perhaps vision sensory data includes a coordinate that, in effect, locates that pixel on the image seen by that eye), the learned programs in the receiving mind bion can presumably determine which specific mind bion in that mind, call it bion P, should process the sensory data in that received message. After determining bion P, that receiving mind bion then sends a message to bion P (the message text will include, at a minimum, the received sensory data, and the unique identifier of the brain bion that sent that sensory data). Bion P, after receiving that sent message, then processes that sensory data and sends an acknowledgement message to the brain bion that sent that sensory data (the list_of_bions parameter of the send() statement is set to that brain bion’s unique identifier). And, upon receiving that acknowledgement message, the interface programming running in that brain bion simply extracts the unique identifier of the mind bion that sent that acknowledgement message, and henceforth that brain bion will send its sensory data to that specific mind bion, instead of sending a BRAIN_BION_HAS_SENSORY_DATA message. And likewise, the same process happens in the case of a brain bion that can activate a muscle: that brain bion periodically sends a short-range BRAIN_BION_CAN_ACTIVATE_A_MUSCLE message, until it gets an acknowledgement message, the sender of which is the specific mind bion that that brain bion will henceforth accept activate-muscle messages from.
For any animal that is guided by a separate mind that interfaces with that animal’s brain, I think it likely that by the time that animal is born (in the case of a live birth), or hatches from an egg (in the case of an animal that hatches from an egg), that for that animal, as a rule, none of its brain bions are still sending BRAIN_BION_HAS_SENSORY_DATA messages or BRAIN_BION_CAN_ACTIVATE_A_MUSCLE messages, because that brain has already fully connected to the mind that will be the guide for that animal during its life. And all messages between that mind and that brain—after that animal’s birth or hatching, whichever applies—will be sent to specific bion recipients identified by their unique identifiers.
Assuming a separate mind and brain in the case of complex animals with complex senses and movement capabilities, and that this separateness has been present in our world for more than 500 million years, I think 500 million years is much more than enough time for protocols to have evolved in animal minds to avoid a situation where two or more animal minds are competing for connection with the same brain and have each established a partial connection with that brain (in this case the animal would probably not survive long enough to reproduce, because each of the competing minds would only have some of the sensory data and/or some of the control of that animal’s movements, with the end result that that animal would probably soon succumb to the dangers in its environment, such as starving to death or being caught and eaten by a predator). Also, I assume that protocols have evolved to prevent the wrong kind of mind, that is incompatible with an animal, from connecting with that animal’s brain (for example, to prevent an insect mind from connecting to a monkey brain).
In the case of humans, regarding the possibility of having one’s physical body, in effect, taken over by a “spirit” or “demon” or “entity” or whatever one wants to call it, this is the idea of “possession”, of being “possessed” by a being other than oneself. However, because one’s mind has already fully connected with one’s brain by the time of one’s birth, it will be impossible for some other mind or awareness/mind, regardless of how close (in terms of distance) it may be to one’s brain, to receive any of the sensory-data messages from one’s brain, because only the specified recipients of those sensory-data messages can receive those messages, and the specified recipients are mind bions in one’s mind, identified by their unique identifiers. Likewise, that other mind or awareness/mind, regardless of how close it may be to one’s brain, cannot control any of the muscles that one’s brain can activate, because the relevant brain bions in the motor cortex will only accept activate-muscle messages from specific mind bions in one’s mind, identified by their unique identifiers. In summary, having one’s brain possessed by some other mind or awareness/mind is impossible and does not happen. Thus, all stories of such possession are fiction (a related subject is multiple personality disorder, which is considered separately in section 9.7).
This chapter considers the evolution of organic life. The explanation for evolution offered by the computing-element reality model involves both Lamarckian evolution and a civilization of beings called Caretakers. The chapter sections are:
- 7.1 Evolution
- 7.2 Explanation by the Mathematics-Only Reality Model of the Evolution of Organic Life
- 7.3 Darwinism
- 7.4 Darwinism Fails the Probability Test
- 7.5 Darwinism Fails the Behe Test
- 7.6 Explanation by the Computing-Element Reality Model of the Evolution of Organic Life, and the Existence of the Caretaker Civilization
With regard to organic life, evolution says that new organic life-forms are derived from older organic life-forms. Often, this derivation involves an increase in complexity, but this is not a requirement of evolution.
The idea of evolution is very old. A theory of evolution, such as Darwin’s theory, or Lamarck’s theory, offers an explanation of the mechanism of evolution.
In more general terms, evolution is a process by which something new is created by modifying something old. This kind of evolution is so common thruout human activity that one takes it for granted. All the man-made machines in current use are at least partly derived from knowledge that was previously developed and used to make one or more preexisting machines. For example, if a group of engineers is asked to design a new car, they do not throw out everything known about cars and reinvent the wheel.
The mathematics-only reality model would have one believe that the entire history of organic life—including the transformation of the early atmosphere to the current atmosphere, and the active ongoing maintenance of the current atmosphere in a state of disequilibrium—was accomplished in its entirety by common particles jostled about by random events.
Intelligent processes are too complicated to be explained by mathematical equations. Therefore, the mathematics-only reality model denies that there is any intelligence at the deepest level of the universe. By a process of elimination, the mathematics-only reality model has only common particles and random events with which to explain all the many innovations during the history of organic life.
 The oldest known organic life is bacteria. The fossil record shows that bacteria first appeared at least 3½ billion years ago. Since then, organic life has radically altered the atmosphere. For example, the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere probably started with the first appearance of bacteria; and all the oxygen in the atmosphere originated from photosynthesis, an organic process.
The assertion that organic life actively maintains the atmosphere to suit its own needs, is known as the Gaia Hypothesis. The Gaia Hypothesis was developed by atmospherics scientist James Lovelock. While working as a NASA consultant during the 1960s, Lovelock noticed that Venus and Mars—the two nearest planets whose orbits bracket the Earth—both have atmospheres that are mostly carbon dioxide. As a means to explain the comparatively anomalous Earth atmosphere, he formulated the Gaia Hypothesis (Margulis, Lynn, and Gregory Hinkle. “The Biota and Gaia: 150 Years of Support for Environmental Sciences.” In Scientists on Gaia, Stephen Schneider and Penelope Boston, eds. MIT press, Cambridge, 1993).
The current atmosphere of the Earth is not self-sustaining. It is not an equilibrium atmosphere that would persist if organic life on the Earth disappeared. Instead, the atmosphere is mostly a product of life, and is actively maintained in its present condition by life. The composition of the atmosphere by volume is about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% argon, and 0.03% carbon dioxide. Other gases are present in smaller amounts. As Lovelock states in his book Gaia, if life on Earth were eliminated, the oxygen would slowly leave the atmosphere by such routes as reacting with the nitrogen. After a million years or so, the Earth would have its equilibrium atmosphere: The argon would remain, and there would be more carbon dioxide. But the oxygen would be gone, along with much of the nitrogen (Lovelock, James. Gaia. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1982. pp. 44–46). However, instead of moving to this equilibrium state, the atmosphere is maintained in disequilibrium by the coordinated activities of the biosphere.
One of the more interesting examples of control over the atmosphere by organic life is the production of ammonia. The presence of ammonia in the atmosphere counteracts the acids produced by the oxidation of nitrogen and sulfur. Lovelock estimated that without ammonia production by the biosphere, rainwater would be as acid as vinegar (Ibid., pp. 68, 77). Instead, there is just enough ammonia produced to counteract the acids and keep the rainwater close to neutral. Besides ammonia production, there are many other Gaian processes (Shearer, Walter. “A Selection of Biogenic Influences Relevant to the Gaia Hypothesis.” In Scientists on Gaia, op. cit.).
Darwinism—named after the British naturalist Charles Darwin, who first proposed his theory in the mid 19th century—is a theory of how organic evolution has happened. The theory states that during the production of a child organism, random events can cause random changes in that child organism’s characteristics. Then, if these new characteristics are a net benefit to that organism, that organism is more likely to survive and reproduce, thereby passing on these new characteristics to its children.
Darwin’s theory has two parts. The first part identifies the designer of organic life as randomness. The second part, called natural selection, is the means by which good designs are preserved and bad designs are eliminated. Natural selection is accomplished by the environment in which the organism lives.
As discussed in the previous section, random events applied to common particles is the only mechanism allowed by the mathematics-only reality model for the evolution of organic life. Thus, in effect, Darwinism applies the mathematics-only reality model to the question of how organic life has come about. This is the reason Darwinism is embraced by those who embrace the mathematics-only reality model.
The strong point of Darwinism is natural selection (for example, see the use of natural selection in explaining the evolution of learned programs, in section 3.6). The weak point of Darwinism is its exclusive reliance on random events as the cause of the changes winnowed by natural selection.
 As was described in chapter 2, the production of sex cells has steps in which the genetic inheritance from both parents is randomly mixed to form the genetic inheritance carried by each sex cell. Thus, for sexually reproducing organisms, randomness does play an important role in fine-tuning a species to its environment, insofar as that species is defined by its genetic inheritance.
Although sexual reproduction uses randomness—as part of the total sexual reproduction process—that does not mean, as Darwinism would have it, that the process itself was produced by random physical events. For example, in computer science there are many different optimization problems whose solutions are most efficiently approximated by randomly trying different possibilities and keeping only those tries that improve the quality of the solution. This is a standard technique. However, because a computer program uses randomness to find a solution, that does not mean that the program itself was produced by random physical events. Quite the contrary, the programs of computer science were produced by intelligent designers—namely computer scientists and programmers.
In the computing-element reality model, randomness is assumed to play an important role in the origin of learned programs, because, in essence, learning by trial and error (section 3.6) is an algorithm that makes random changes within the confines defined for that algorithm.
In various forms, the probability argument against the randomness of Darwinism—in which odds are computed or estimated—has been made by many different scientists since Darwinism was first proposed. One way to make the probability argument is to use the known structure of major organic molecules such as DNA and protein., For example, the probability p of getting in one trial an exact sequence of N links, when there are C different equally likely choices for each link, is:
p = (1 ÷ (CN))
Applying this equation to DNA, where C is 4—or to protein, where C is 20—quickly gives infinitesimally small values of p as the number of links N increases.
Consider the DNA needs of the first self-reproducing bacterium. And note that until there is self-reproduction, Darwinian natural selection has nothing to work with, because Darwinian natural selection assumes there is already a population of reproducing organisms. Darwinian apologists typically avoid considering how the first self-reproducing cell—presumably a bacterium because it is the simplest self-reproducing cell—came about, and the feeble attempts I’ve seen by them, invoke natural selection operating at the level of atoms and molecules, which is absurd and contrary to physical science. Also, they assume there is only the physical, and they know nothing regarding intelligent particles. Thus, to argue at their level, bions and their involvement with organic cells is ignored until the end of this section.
How likely is it that the first self-reproducing bacterium happened by chance? To improve the odds for the Darwinian apologists, let’s ignore the current high complexity of bacteria, and also let’s ignore any consideration of what a physical self-reproducing machine needs in terms of its components. And let’s assume that the DNA needed to code that first self-reproducing bacterium is only 10,000 links (this is enough to code a small number of proteins, totaling about 3,300 protein links; the bacteria in our world today have much more DNA than this). Also, let’s assume that at any DNA link, any two of the four bases will be adequate in coding that link, because, presumably, there are many DNA sequences for our 10,000-link DNA that would adequately code a usable set of proteins for that first self-reproducing bacterium (this assumption lowers C from 4 to 2). Also, let’s greatly exaggerate the total number of trials that could have happened in the past to bring about that 10,000-link DNA (the total number of trials is multiplied by p to get the final probability of the wanted 10,000-link DNA happening). Specifically, let’s assume a million trials per second (106) for the estimated age of our Milky Way galaxy (15 billion years is approximately 1018 seconds), times all the places where these trials could have happened, which we will greatly exaggerate as being the same as the total number of elementary physical particles in the visible universe (estimated by physicists at approximately 1080 particles). And also, let’s assume that nothing else is needed, other than this 10,000-link DNA strand, to make that first self-reproducing bacterium. With all these extremely generous assumptions, which greatly increase the probability of that first self-reproducing bacterium arising by chance, let’s compute the probability of it, which is ((the probability of one trial succeeding) × (the total number of trials)), which is:
(1 ÷ (210,000)) × (106 × 1018 × 1080) ≈ 10−2,906
In other words, the odds are about 102,906 to one, against. And this means that that first self-reproducing bacterium did not arise by chance.
For those Darwinian apologists who admit that the odds are against them, they claim that the odds don’t matter because the mere fact that self-reproducing cells exist means that the odds were beaten. But they are wrong, because what the odds show is that the first self-reproducing cell did not arise by chance. An explanation other than randomness is needed, and this book provides that explanation: bions.
 Each molecule of DNA is a long molecule composed of chemical units called bases. These bases are strung together like links on a chain. There are four bases. Thus, there are four choices for each link.
The sequence of bases in an organism’s DNA is very important, because this sequence is the means by which DNA stores information, which is known to include the structure of individual proteins. A bacterium—the simplest organic life that can reproduce itself without the need to parasitize other cells—typically has many strands of DNA, containing altogether hundreds of thousands or millions of bases.
 A protein is a long folded molecule. Just as DNA is composed of a sequence of smaller building blocks, so is protein. However, whereas the building blocks of DNA are four different bases, the building blocks of protein are twenty different amino acids. Although a protein has more choices per link, a protein rarely exceeds several thousand links in length.
A bacterium has several thousand different proteins. The average length of these different proteins is somewhere in the hundreds of links.
 Any self-reproducing machine in the physical universe must meet certain theoretical requirements. A self-reproducing machine must have a wall to protect and hold together its contents. Behind this wall the self-reproducing machine needs a power plant to run its machinery, including machinery to bring in raw materials from outside the wall. Also, machinery is needed to transform the raw materials into the components needed to build a copy of the self-reproducing machine. And machinery is needed to assemble these components.
All this transport, transformation, and assembly machinery, requires a guidance mechanism. For example, there must be some coordinated assembly of the manufactured components into the new copy of the self-reproducing machine. Thus, the guidance mechanism cannot be too trivial, because its complexity must include a construction plan for the entire self-reproducing machine.
The requirements of a wall, power plant, transport machinery, transformation machinery, assembly machinery, and a guidance mechanism—all working together to cause self-reproduction—are not easily met. Consider the fact that there are no man-made self-reproducing machines.
The Behe test refers to the main argument made against Darwinism by the biochemist Michael Behe:
By irreducibly complex I mean a single system composed of several well-matched, interacting parts that contribute to the basic function, wherein the removal of any one of the parts causes the system to effectively cease functioning. An irreducibly complex system cannot be produced directly (that is, by continuously improving the initial function, which continues to work by the same mechanism) by slight, successive modifications of a precursor system, because any precursor to an irreducibly complex system that is missing a part is by definition nonfunctional. An irreducibly complex biological system, if there is such a thing, would be a powerful challenge to Darwinian evolution. Since natural selection can only choose systems that are already working, then if a biological system cannot be produced gradually it would have to arise as an integrated unit, in one fell swoop, for natural selection to have anything to act on.
After giving the example of a mousetrap as an irreducibly complex system, Behe then gives several detailed examples of specific biochemical systems that are irreducibly complex: the cilium; the bacterial flagellum; blood clotting; the immune system’s clonal selection, antibody diversity, and complement system.
By focusing on the issue of irreducibly complex systems, and being clear about that focus, Behe avoids the strong part of Darwinism, which is natural selection, and instead concentrates on the weak part of Darwinism, which states that random physical events are the cause of the changes winnowed by natural selection.
Calculating the probability for one of the irreducibly complex biochemical systems given by Behe, assuming that the system arose by chance, is non-trivial. However, mathematician William Dembski, in his book No Free Lunch, tackles the specific problem of calculating a probability for the formation of a bacterial flagellum by chance. For a bacterium that has one or more flagella, its flagella are a means of moving that bacterium about in its watery environment. Each flagellum has a long whip-like filament that extends outward from the bacterium’s cell wall. This filament is attached to a structure, called a hook, that acts as a universal joint which connects the filament to a specialized structure embedded in the cell wall that acts as a bi-directional motor that can rotate the filament in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction. Because of the helically wound structure of the filament, one of these rotation directions causes the spinning filament to act like a propeller that pushes the bacterium in one direction, and the opposite rotation causes the spinning filament to act as a destabilizer that causes the bacterium to tumble (the bacterium tumbles when it wants to change the direction it is moving in).
For comparison purposes, Dembski first calculates what he calls a universal probability bound, the idea of which is that anything dependent on chance whose probability is smaller than this universal probability bound is extremely unlikely to happen no matter how much time and material resources in the universe one invokes on the side of chance. His universal probability bound, which is very generous to those who want to invoke Darwinism and its reliance on chance, is computed as follows (1080 is the estimate by physicists of the number of elementary physical particles in the visible universe; 1045 is approximately the number of Planck-time intervals in one second; 1025 is more than ten million times the age of our Milky Way galaxy in seconds):
(1 ÷ (1080 × 1045 × 1025)) = 10–150
Thus, given this universal probability bound, anything with a probability less than 10−150 can be safely dismissed as so unlikely that there is no reason to consider it as possible when offering an explanation for the formation of an irreducibly complex biochemical system.
Dembski then defines an equation for the probability of a structure arising by chance. His equation may be written as:
pstructure = ( poriginate-parts × plocalize-parts × pconfigure-parts )
In the above equation, pstructure is the probability of getting either the specified structure or a functionally equivalent structure; poriginate-parts is the probability of originating all the parts that are needed to build an instance of the specified structure or a functionally equivalent structure; plocalize-parts is the probability that the needed parts are located together at the construction site; pconfigure-parts is the probability that the localized parts are configured (assembled) in such a way that either the specified structure or a functionally equivalent structure results.
In Dembski’s computation of pstructure for a bacterial flagellum, the parts of the structure are individual proteins. For the Escherichia coli bacterium, Dembski refers to the technical literature and says that about 50 different proteins are needed to make the flagellum, with about 30 different proteins being in the final form of the flagellum, including:
The filament that serves as the propeller for the flagellum makes up over 90 percent of the flagellum’s mass and is comprised of more than 20,000 subunits of flagellin protein (FliC). … The three ring proteins (FlgH, I, and F) are present in about 26 subunits each. The proximal rod requires 6 subunits, FliE 9 subunits, and FliP about 5 subunits. The distal rod consists of about 25 subunits. The hook (or U-joint) consists of about 130 subunits of FlgE.
Given these details, Dembski computes plocalize-parts as follows:
Let us therefore assume that 5 copies of each of the 50 proteins required to construct E. coli’s flagellum are required for a functioning flagellum (this is extremely conservative—all the numbers above were at least that and some far exceeded it, for example, the 20,000 subunits of flagellin protein in the filament). We have already assumed that each of these proteins permits 10 interchangeable proteins. That corresponds to 500 proteins in E. coli’s “protein supermarket” that could legitimately go into a flagellum. By randomly selecting proteins from E. coli’s “protein supermarket,” we need to get 5 copies of each of the 50 required proteins or a total of 250 proteins. Moreover, since each of the 50 required proteins has by assumption 10 interchangeable alternates, there are 500 proteins in E. coli from which these 250 can be drawn. But those 500 reside within a “protein supermarket” of 4,289 [different] proteins. Randomly picking 250 proteins and having them all fall among those 500 therefore has probability (500/4,289)250, which has order of magnitude 10−234 and falls considerably below the universal probability bound of 10−150.
For computing probability poriginate-parts, Dembski is willing to concede a value of 1 (certainty) if one wants to assume that the needed proteins are already coded in the bacterium’s DNA for other uses. For computing probability pconfigure-parts, the computational approach used by Dembski is more complex than that used for computing plocalize-parts, but gives a similar result of a probability that is much smaller than his universal probability bound of 10−150.
 Behe, Michael. Darwin’s Black Box. Touchstone, New York, 1998. p. 39.
 Ibid., pp. 59–65.
 Ibid., pp. 69–72.
 Ibid., pp. 79–96.
 Ibid., pp. 120–138.
 Dembski, William. No Free Lunch: Why Specified Complexity Cannot Be Purchased without Intelligence. Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Lanham Maryland, 2002. pp. 289–302.
 Ibid., pp. 21–22.
 Ibid., p. 291. The pstructure equation is equivalent to—but more descriptively labeled than—the pdco equation given by Dembski.
 Ibid., p 293.
 Ibid., p 293.
7.6 Explanation by the Computing-Element Reality Model of the Evolution of Organic Life, and the Existence of the Caretaker Civilization
Like the mathematics-only reality model, the computing-element reality model also offers the same possible explanation for the evolution of organic life: common particles jostled about by random events. However, as shown in the previous sections, this is not a viable explanation, and is not considered further.
Another possible explanation is that the computing-element program explicitly programs the details of organic life. For example, the computing-element program could include the details of the DNA, proteins, and other molecules, in the first bacterium. However, this possible explanation, which is not considered further, is weak for many reasons, not the least of which is that it greatly increases the complexity of the computing-element program.
Another explanation—and much more promising—is that the evolution of organic life is the result of the cooperative action of intelligent particles—beginning in the remote past at least 3½ billion years ago, and continuing into the present. Note that with the availability of intelligent particles, there are two basic approaches in which intelligent particles can be involved with the evolution of organic life:
An inside-out process: Design innovations in an organism originate from the intelligent particles that occupy a specific instance of that organism. Once made, an innovation can be copied from the originating population of bions to other bion populations that occupy and develop new instances of that organism. In effect, this is Lamarckian evolution.
An outside-in process: There is nothing in the computing-element reality model that implies a need for common particles in the composition of a sentient being. Instead, only intelligent particles are needed. And as shown in earlier chapters, even we humans, who have physical bodies, exist quite well without them. Thus, given these considerations, it seems very likely that a large fraction of the sentient beings in the universe do not have a physical body, and never have one at any time in their life-cycle (unlike humans who alternate having a physical body with not having one—physical embodiment alternates with the afterlife).
It is likely that civilizations of such beings, who never have a physical body, exist widely thruout the universe. And it is likely that at least some of these civilizations are highly advanced in their ability to interact with physical matter, and in their scientific knowledge of the physical.
For the members of such a civilization, their interaction with physical matter would first include, by means of learned programs, being able to see and manipulate physical matter. Assuming that the beings are already intelligent, once the beings can directly see and manipulate physical matter, they can then proceed—more or less in the same way that humanity has proceeded—to master the science of physical matter; and then, as their interests dictate, they can use that knowledge to construct highly sophisticated physical environments and/or machines, including physical computers.
Thus, given the computing-element reality model, it is possible that such a civilization, wise in the ways of physical matter, existed in our solar system more than 3½ billion years ago—before the beginning of organic life on Earth. And it is possible that this same civilization, or a more evolved version of it, still occupies our solar system today, and has played, and continues to play, a role in the existence of organic life on this Earth. The range of their possible activity with regard to Earth’s organic life suggests for this civilization the name of Caretakers.
The members of this Caretaker civilization would each have an awareness/mind, just as we humans have, but their bodies consist only of bions (no physical matter as a part of their bodies; no physical body of any kind). Also, a Caretaker bion-body is not limited in the way that the human bion-body is, because the Caretaker bion-body is not composed of cell-controlling bions. Instead, the Caretaker bion-body is composed of bions whose learned programs have evolved without having to support a physical body and its burdensome microscopic needs, and have evolved under the influence of the Caretakers to be compatible with the Caretaker mind and to do what is possible to do as the Caretakers want. This means, among other things, that the Caretaker bion-body, unlike the human bion-body, can manipulate physical objects on a macroscopic scale. Specifically, to interact with physical matter on a macroscopic scale, the learned programs of the bions composing the Caretaker bion-body would make use of the learned-program statement push_against_physical_matter() to push against physical matter, when directed to do so by that Caretaker’s mind. For example, if the Caretaker’s mind sends messages to a large number of its bion-body bions to push with a specified force in a specified direction, and those bions are very close to physical matter (recall the very short range of the push_against_physical_matter() statement, estimated at less than one-tenth of a millimeter), and those bions are spread out, the end result, assuming that the specified force is substantial, can be the movement of a large physical mass in the specified direction.
Because our human hands work so well for handling physical matter on a macroscopic scale, the Caretaker bion-body probably has—or can form when directed to by that Caretaker’s mind—appendages that look similar to human arms with hands, but without the elbow joints and rigid straight parts due to bones, because the Caretaker bion-body is boneless. With regard to pushing against physical matter with its bion-body, and to lessen the control burden on the Caretaker’s mind, there are different ways one can, in effect, offload much of the control burden onto the bions that compose its bion-body. For example, let’s assume that each bion in its bion-body has a learned program named LP_push_against_physical_matter_at_the_surface, that allows that Caretaker’s bion-body to push against physical matter in a way that is similar to what we experience in our physical bodies (the surface of one’s physical body, at the point of contact with physical matter, pushes against that physical matter). Regarding this learned program, the Caretaker’s mind can send several different messages, including a start-running message that causes this learned program to run, a stop-running message that causes this learned program to stop running, and a pushing-force message that specifies the amount of force to be used.
In the same way as was done for the cell-controlling bions of a multicellular body, assume that all the bions composing a Caretaker’s bion-body have the same USID_4 value, which is, in effect, a unique identifier for that bion-body. Also, assume that the start-running, stop-running, and pushing-force messages, sent by the Caretaker’s mind, are using the send() statement’s user_settable_identifiers_block parameter to identify the intended recipients of these sent messages, and the USID_4 value of that user_settable_identifiers_block parameter for those sent messages is always set to the USID_4 value for that Caretaker’s bion-body. The following steps are a brief outline of the learned program LP_push_against_physical_matter_at_the_surface (when a bion in the Caretaker’s bion-body receives a start-running message from the Caretaker’s mind, it starts with step 1; when a bion in the Caretaker’s bion-body receives a stop-running message from the Caretaker’s mind, that bion stops running this learned program if it is currently running it):
First determine if this bion is, in effect, at the current surface of the bion-body. Call the get_relative_locations_of_bions() statement, with a short distance specified for its use_this_send_distance parameter, to get the relative locations of nearby bions in the bion-body, from which it can be determined if this bion is a surface bion. If this bion is not at the current surface of the bion-body then stop running this learned program for this bion until the next start-running message is received by this bion, in which case start over again with this step 1.
For this surface bion, use the relative location of the centroid that was among the returned items of the call of get_relative_locations_of_bions() in step 1, and set vector V so that it points opposite to the vector that points from this surface bion to that centroid. The end result is that vector V will point outward from this surface bion, away from the bion-body’s nearby interior.
If this surface bion has recently received a pushing-force message from the Caretaker’s mind that specifies the amount of pushing force F to apply, then call push_against_physical_matter() specifying F as the pushing force and vector V as the direction of that pushing force.
If enough time has passed, let’s say 50 milliseconds since last did step 1, then go to step 1 (the idea is to periodically start over again with step 1 because the bion-body may have altered its shape in some way because of commands sent by the Caretaker’s mind). Otherwise, wait a short time, let’s say a few milliseconds, then go to step 3 (the idea is to keep applying that pushing force).
Presumably, the Caretakers can see our physical world. Less important but also useful would be the ability to hear our physical world when in its atmosphere. The Caretaker mind probably has basically the same learned programs that Sylvan Muldoon’s mind has (section 5.4), that allowed Muldoon to both see and hear the physical world when projected in his bion-body. These learned programs, for seeing and hearing the physical world, use, respectively, the learned-program statements get_photon_vectors() and get_relative_locations_of_physical_atoms(), to, after further processing, let the awareness see and hear our physical world.
In general, because the Caretaker civilization predates the first appearance of humans, it is very likely that the Caretakers were the original source of those learned programs in the human mind (the third-eye and third-ear), that enabled Muldoon to both see and hear our physical world during his bion-body projections. Also, the first humans may have been Caretakers (although, as soon as they became human they were no longer Caretakers): This may be how certain parts of the human mind, including its intellectual parts, were inherited from the Caretakers. Any current differences between these inherited learned programs in current humanity and the corresponding learned programs in the Caretakers of today, would be due to the continued evolution of these learned programs in both Caretakers and humans after that initial copying from Caretakers to humanity in the distant past.
In summary, the ways in which the Caretaker civilization could be involved with the evolution of organic life on Earth include the following:
The Caretakers may be involved—in the past and perhaps still in the present—with making and keeping the Earth compatible with organic life, such as by hauling water to this planet from comets further out in the solar system.
The Caretakers are probably the source for the original versions of many of the learned programs in the human mind.
Assuming that the Caretakers have deciphered the DNA language, they could act as intelligent breeders within the limits of what the DNA language allows. For example, they could modify an organism’s DNA, and insert that modified DNA into an egg cell.
Organic life depends on the learned programs in cell-controlling bions that, in effect, carry the knowledge and ability to construct and operate the organic structures that compose a given organism. These organic structures have a wide range in terms of size: the smallest are organic molecules such as DNA and protein, then sub-cellular structures and cells, then constructions of cells including complete organs such as the heart and lungs, and finally the largest structure, being the entire physical body of an organism.
Regarding learned programs in general, learned programs cannot be directly programmed into intelligent particles by any mechanism other than the computing-element program and its learning algorithms (section 3.6). The reason for this limitation is that the computing elements are inaccessible: All particles, whether intelligent or common, are data stored in computing elements (chapter 1). Thus, particles—as an effect of the computing elements—cannot be used to directly probe and/or manipulate the computing elements. Thus, no civilization in this universe can ever know the actual instruction set of the computing elements, nor can it ever know the actual programming language of learned programs. Thus, no civilization in this universe can ever write, as one writes on paper, a new set of learned programs, and then program those learned programs into one or more bions. Thus, it is not possible that the Caretaker civilization, in the distant past, designed and then caused to come into existence the first self-reproducing bacterium, because they could neither write nor program the learned programs needed by whichever bion would operate that first self-reproducing bacterium. Thus, only Lamarckian evolution can be the cause of an organic feature that requires a new or modified learned program to go along with that organic feature.
The next chapter considers in more detail what seem to be the current activities of the Caretakers with regard to our Earth, and in particular with regard to human life.
 If the innovation is a change to one or more learned programs, then the copying that is done is the copying of those learned programs from one population of bions to another.
If the innovation is a change that can be recorded into that organism’s DNA—such as recording, for example, a new design for a specific protein—then, in accordance with the rules for DNA encoding of information, that change can be made by that organism’s bions to that organism’s germ-cell DNA, and allowed to propagate thru the normal reproduction means for that organism. Presumably, the rules for DNA encoding of information exist in one or more learned programs that all cell-controlling bions share, so that they all speak the same DNA language.
 Lamarckism—named after the French naturalist Jean Lamarck who proposed his theory in the early 19th century—is a theory of how organic evolution has happened. His theory states that an organism can adapt to its environment by making structural changes to itself, which can then be inherited.
Historically, Lamarckism was replaced by Darwinism due to Darwinism’s better fit with the mathematics-only reality model. Also, Lamarckism had the drawback that there is no apparent physical mechanism by which Lamarckism could happen. However, this objection is removed by the computing-element reality model, because intelligent particles provide the means by which Lamarckian changes can take place.
 The transport of water to the Earth may be an ongoing process. Geophysicists Louis Frank and John Sigwarth have published a number of papers during the 1980s and 1990s regarding what they call small comets. Their claim, based on Earth-observing satellite data, is that:
Every few seconds a ‘snowball’ the size of a small house breaks up as it approaches Earth and deposits a large cloud of water vapor in Earth’s upper atmosphere. [quoted from their website at http://smallcomets.physics.uiowa.edu]
If this alleged influx of snowballs is correct, then it may be that this influx is the result of a deliberate transport program operated by the Caretakers.
Frank and Sigwarth have calculated that the infall rate of these small comets can account for the Earth’s oceans. Regarding the origin of the Earth’s oceans, geologist David Deming comments:
No existing theory of ocean origin by outgassing or rapid accretion on a very young Earth survives falsification. The unifying theory that explains both the origin of the ocean and the continents is the slow and gradual accumulation of water on the surface of the Earth by extraterrestrial accretion. [Eos. Trans. AGU, 82(47), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract U52A–0006, 2001]
 For example, the arising by means of Lamarckian evolution of a parasitic or poisonous species that is judged to be too damaging, could be singled out for eradication if eradication of that species is possible without excessive amounts of unwanted damage elsewhere in the environment.
 For example, during extinction events caused by comets and asteroids, such as the Cretaceous extinction event of about 65 million years ago, some species could be singled out for preservation. Representative members of a species could be collected and kept in a protected environment for as long as needed, until they can be safely reintroduced into the Earth’s biosphere.
An extinction event could also be arranged by the Caretakers, so as to allow a general “housecleaning” of the Earth’s biosphere, followed by the selective reintroduction of those species wanted on the newly “cleaned” Earth.
 The Caretakers, in theory, could have designed the molecular composition of the first self-reproducing bacterium—its DNA, proteins, etc. But without a bion to animate it, the Caretakers would have had only a lifeless lump of organic matter—a lump that would, among other things, have been unable to reproduce itself.